The 17th and 18th Century Essay
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
The 17th and 18th Century Essay
17th, 18th, Century, Essay
During the 17th century France, England, and Spain continued to rule Europe; The late 16th century was all about a mannerist style, however, that soon morphed into a Baroque style and quickly spread like wildfire throughout Europe. During this time, early puritan settlers had just made it to America and set up roots in New England; Places such as Holland had developed a prosperous middle class and England relied on the aristocracy as they had in the past. At the time textile machinery was gradually evolving and a new loom was introduced.
In the 17th century fashion plates were being produced in Paris, these plates are similar to a modern-day fashion magazine (picture Vogue painted on a large plate with a caption) and have helped historians set the scene for what garments and everyday life may have looked like back then.
When it comes to men’s costumes not much shifted from the early 16th century to the 17th century, however, they began wearing cravats which were scarf like pieces that separates the shirts and were worn in place of collars.
Instead of doublets which were very popular among men in earlier centuries they began wearing surouts and justacorps; these jackets had straight sleeves with cuffs and buttons down the front and the main difference was the fact that they covered the breeches completely.
Breeches during the 17th century became slimmer and less full then other years and stopped right at the knee. Men’s wigs also grew much larger and were often worn in the natural colors they came in. Some things that stayed the same were shoes, men still preferred shoes over boots.
Women’s costume during the 17th century saw no major changes as well; The necklines became squarer and less reveling and corsets became visible. Corsets became visible at the front of the bodice and formed a V at the waist, since they were visible it meant they became heavily decorated and elaborate.
A new dress cut also appeared at this time, the bodice and skirt were cut together in one length from shoulder to hem; this became known as Mantua and historians believe it to have evolved from middle-eastern robes. The final garment was very full both in the front and back and was always worn over a corset and overskirt. If women were to wear it to a formal event then the skirt was pleated and belted in the back, often skirts were pulled to the back and fastened to have a draped effect on the body.
We saw a change in the shape of women’s shoes during this time, they became more pointed, heels became higher, and the shoes became narrower. The design became more decorated and elaborate and leather became used more and more.
Pantofles were a type of heeled slipper that were becoming increasingly more popular during this time. When it comes to accessories, women began wearing pomander balls as a belt attached to their waist; these balls contained perfume that was placed in a decorated box with holes shaped like apples which helped the women to smell good wherever they went. During this time, some women used “plumpers” which were balls of wax that were used to give their face a rounder look.
Even in the 17th century social rank played a large part in both men and women’s costume, it determined the length of a women’s gown train and the elaborately decorated corsets and shoes were another dead giveaway of social ranking. Trade played a role during this time but one of the only instances we see is women’s Mantua gowns which were though to originate from the middle east. People in Spain continued to partake in the styles of the 16th century while much of the world was beginning to evolve.
When the 18th century begins we see a decline in Baroque style and instead are welcomed with slender curves, less massive styles, and an emphasis on balance. The new style is known as Rococo the era lasted from roughly 1720 to 1789, when the French aristocracy began to obsess over their wealth and finery.
The Rococo was, therefore, the last truly aristocratic style of France. During the 18th century we also see major advances in textile manufacturing; the flyting shuttle which carried yarn across fabric was invented in 1733 and resulted in a more rapid consumption of yarn.
Inventors began developing different and faster methods of spinning yarn, which resulted in a number of new mechanized spinning devices. By the 1800 people were using both steam and water to power these machines. These new technological advances were mostly used on cotton textiles since cotton was much cheaper and more readily available then materials such as silk.
All of this resulted in cotton fabrics becoming more accessible as well as cheaper for people to purchase, we see an increase in cotton clothes and costume during this time as a result. Europe was the center for elaborate and sophisticated textile patterns and America just so happened to be their main purchaser of these patterns and textiles.
Europeans sold expensive decorated fabrics to well off colonists and cheap poor-quality fabrics to poorer colonists at the time. There were also professional weavers who produced their own cloth and textiles and they either did it in their own house or had a studio.
By the 18th century tailors were well established and respected, they helped make men’s suits and coats as well as women’s gowns. Members of the aristocracy as well as upper class wealthy individuals had relied on tailors for many years and enjoyed having their clothing specially made for themselves by skilled tradesmen.
However, for everyday ordinary people they were not afforded this luxury and relied on women at home to make the garments, many who had a limited skillset. These homemade garments looked homemade and poor peopled had a hard time obtaining thread or even purchasing materials because the cost was still very high for them. The poor often purchased used and second-hand garments for special sellers to try and have a wardrobe of their own.
During the 18th century the American colonies imported British goods and tried to stay up to date with European fashions; some people were able to afford importing outfits while others copied styles they had seen and created their own costumes. Working class people dressed for convenience; women often wore a chemise with a petticoat skirt and a short gown often times paired with an apron and a cap to cover her hair.
At this time women did not universally wear drawers; however, hoop skirts were continuing to grow larger and larger and were regarded as an “outrageous” style. Between 1770 and 1780 the hood was supplanted by hip pads and bustles as support garments.
The earliest hoops were made of whalebone but as the style grew many began using metal hoops as well as wicker baskets to hold it together. The robe battante, robe volante, innocente and sacque were all names for an unbelted gown that was loose from the shoulders to the floor and had pleats at the back and on the shoulders. A Pet-en-lair was a short hip length version that was worn with a separate large gathered skirt.
In the 18th century we see a change in men’s collars, most of the time they were made out of white linen or cotton; for the first half of the century the collar gathered at the neck with neck cloths and knotted under the chin. During the second half of the century the neck bands lengthened and evolved into a collar which was sewn onto the actual shirt.
Banyans were loose fitting garments originally known as nightgowns, dressing gowns or Indian gowns and were worn throughout the century. They came in two different styles; the first a type of kimono which was very loose fitting, and the second being a form fitting style similar to a coat with sleeves.
Men preferred fabrics such as cotton calicos, silk damask, velvet. Taffeta, and satin. When men wore shoes outdoors spatterdashers also known as spats or gaiters were worn; these were protective coverings that went from the top of the shoe to right below the knee. Boots also were evolving as well; men began wearing them for hunting, riding, travelling, and serving in the military. Boots became more sturdy and practical as well, jack boots were made of rigid stiff leather and were knee length to protect the legs.
Women’s necklines were still changing and in the 1760’s the necklines were much lower and oval then years prior when they were high cut and square. In the late 1770’s some skirts shortened and women reveled their leg above the ankles which was groundbreaking at the time.
The Chemise a la reine was a white muslin gown that had a waistline as well as a fully gathered skirt. These garments were imported from India and made out of muslin. In the 1780’s women’s hairstyles were not as high as the 1770’s (when the maximum height was reached and women’s hair was a towering structure) the 1770’s was all about fullness with curled hair and locks hanging down the back.
Women’s cloaks were cut to be full and fit over their very wide skirts, although they varied in length some were hooded and many were made out of velvet or wool; for warmer weather women had silk or other lightweight fabric used.
In summary, social life and class structure stand out during the 18th century when it comes to costume and dressing. The upper class showed off their wealth through expensive fabrics and embellishments while the poor lived in simple and practical garments and struggled to buy new clothes often opting to buy used second hand pieces. The lavishness of the 18th century illustrates conspicuous consumption.
During this time, we see influences from other cultures as well as international trade; both evident in men robes, men’s dressing gowns, and women’s dresses as well. We see more use of Indian muslin fabric and oriental design. During this time, there were lots of technological advances made especially in weaving and textile machinery.
This helped to make fabric and yearn cheaper and more readily available for everyday folks. The French revolution marked the end of all of this in 1795 and the revolution brought an abrupt and violent end to the regime.
Tortora, Phyllis G., and Keith Eubank. Survey of Historic Costume: a History of Western Dress. New York, NY: Fairchild Publications, 1998.
Cunnington, C. W. and P. Cunnington. 1972. Handbook of English Costume in the Seventeenth Century. London: Faber and Faber.
Swann, J. 1982. Shoes. London: Batsford, pp.7,14
“Mantua.” Fashion History Timeline, September 29, 2017. https://fashionhistory.fitnyc.edu/mantua/.
Esposito, Bianca. “The Purple Pet En L’air: Part 1.” The Closet Historian, January 1, 1970. http://theclosethistorian.blogspot.com/2015/07/the-purple-pet-en-lair-part-1.html.
Fleming, R.S. “Available for Purchase from These Fine Vendors:” Kate Tattersall Adventures, June 23, 2017. http://www.katetattersall.com/spatterdashes-gaiters-spats-for-protection-warmth-and-disguise/.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
Do You Have Any Other Essay/Assignment/Class Project/Homework Related to this? Click Here Now [CLICK ME] and Have It Done by Our PhD Qualified Writers!!
Tired of getting an average grade in all your school assignments, projects, essays, and homework? Try us today for all your academic schoolwork needs. We are among the most trusted and recognized professional writing services in the market.
We provide unique, original and plagiarism-free high quality academic, homework, assignments and essay submissions for all our clients. At our company, we capitalize on producing A+ Grades for all our clients and also ensure that you have smooth academic progress in all your school term and semesters.
High-quality academic submissions, A 100% plagiarism-free submission, Meet even the most urgent deadlines, Provide our services to you at the most competitive rates in the market, Give you free revisions until you meet your desired grades and Provide you with 24/7 customer support service via calls or live chats.