Philosophy Form and Nature of Any Language Essay
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Philosophy Form and Nature of Any Language Essay
Philosophy, Form, Nature, Any, Language, Essay
For each of the eleven questions, answer with a minimum of 250 words.
- Describe and contrast Russell’s descriptivist theory of the reference of proper names with Strawson-Searle’s cluster descriptivist theory. Explain the difference in focus (individual vs. community) that lies behind the two approaches.
- Outline descriptivist theories of the reference of proper names (see previous question) and discuss how the work of Strawson on perception and Donnellan on referential use of definite descriptions began to raise questions about these theories.
- Outline descriptivist theories of the reference of proper names (see the two previous questions) and discuss the main counter-examples brought against them by Donnellan and Kripke. Distinguish examples that tell against both cluster descriptivist approaches and Russell’s approach from examples that tell only against Russell’s approach. Distinguish examples that tell against communal cluster theories from examples that tell only against idiolectal cluster theories.
- Contrast the descriptivist approach to the reference of proper names with the alternative picture presented by Donnellan and Kripke. Give one or two counterexamples to the descriptivist approach. Why is the Donnellan-Kripke approach termed a “picture” rather than a theory?
- Explain Putnam’s cat/robot case. Explain why it indicates that definitions of natural kind terms like ‘cat’ are not analytically true, or true by definition, or even apriori.
- Using Putnam’s discussion of the natural kind term “lemon”, discuss his criticism of traditional definitional accounts of meaning and reference (distinguish these) of natural kind terms. What considerations show that understanding the term is not centrally a matter of knowing its dictionary definition?
- Discuss Putnam’s account of definitions of physical magnitude terms such as “electricity” or “mass”, or natural kind terms in science such as “atom”. Make use of “The Analytic and the Synthetic” and “Explanation and Reference”. Why are such definitions not made true by virtue of the fact that they are definitions? Make some background reference to Quine’s discussion of analyticity. Why is there reason to take such definitions to be empirical, not apriori (explain these last two terms).
- Explain what anti-individualism is. Explain by reference to examples what natures are. Explain how anti-individualism differs from Putnam’s construal of his twin-earth thought experiment regarding thoughts about natural kinds. Consider not only his focus on linguistic reference, but his assumption that the twins are in the same psychological states. How does he use this assumption to interpret his argument?
- Explain what anti-individualism is. Contrast the aluminum (or water) thought experiment with the arthritis thought experiment. Explain differences and similarities in the lessons that antiindividualism draws from these two thought experiments.
- Using Putnam’s account of definition as background, explain the sofa thought experiment from “Intellectual Norms and Foundations of Mind” and its lessons for anti-individualism. Explain why this thought experiment and other considerations suggest that social relations are not the most basic ground for anti-individualism.
- Discuss the notions of reflection and incomplete understanding by reference to the arthritis and sofa thought experiments. (You may also use the other aluminum/water thought experiment and Putnam’s cats/robots thought experiment, if you wish.) How does anti-individualism contribute to understanding the epistemic status of “armchair” reflection? How does it improve on tradition concepts of armchair reflection?
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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