A Case on Membrane Structure and Function
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
A Case on Membrane Structure and Function
Going Under the Knife: A Case on Membrane Structure and Function
Twenty-year-old Kevin groaned and clutched his abdomen as he lay on the emergency room gurney. He had just been diagnosed with acute appendicitis and was waiting to be taken to the operating room (OR). Although he desperately wanted the pain to stop, Kevin was terrified of having general anesthesia. He hoped his fear wasn’t obvious to his older brother Cole, who was finishing medical school and thought he knew everything.
“Hang in there,” Cole said, for what seemed like the eighteenth time. “I’m sure they’ll get you upstairs as soon as they can. They don’t want that thing to burst.”
Kevin grunted. “I know…but does that anesthesia stuff work all the time? How can I not wake up when someone’s slicing my gut open?”
Cole assumed a professorial air, and Kevin wished he’d kept his mouth shut. However, Cole didn’t get a chance to say anything before an aide arrived to take Kevin to the OR.
In the OR, someone placed a mask over Kevin’s face and when he blinked, he suddenly found himself in a hospital room with Cole waiting in a chair by the bed. “Welcome back to consciousness, little brother. How’s your abdomen feel?”
Kevin frowned. “Not as bad as it did. So it’s over? How did I get here already?”
“You’ve been out for a few hours,” Cole chuckled, and then launched into the wonders of general anesthesia. “Certain neurons have to depolarize and undergo an action potential to maintain consciousness, but some anesthetics can hyperpolarize them and produce unconsciousness. The anesthetic binds to and opens a certain kind of potassium channel, which increases the “leak” current of potassium. However, it doesn’t affect the voltage-gated potassium channels. This inhibits the neurons, and therefore you aren’t conscious of the surgeons performing the procedure. Amazing!”
Kevin groaned again, but not from pain this time. Cole was undoubtedly right but he sounded like a textbook. “I’m just glad the stuff worked. Now when can I go home?”
Short answer questions
- At resting membrane potential, why does a small amount of sodium leak into the cell instead of out?
- Define depolarization and hyperpolarization and their relationship to threshold.
- Kevin is conscious when certain neurons in his brain are active—they depolarize and undergo action potentials. Describe the process of depolarization of a neuron to threshold.
- What does Cole mean when he says that anesthesia “inhibits the neurons?”
- Is Cole correct when he assumes that leak potassium channels are different than voltage-gated potassium channels? Explain your answer.
- If the anesthesia opens more potassium leak channels, why are Kevin’s neurons less likely to produce action potentials?
- Suppose Kevin’s pre-op blood work indicates that his extracellular potassium concentration is much higher than usual. This condition is known as hyperkalemia and must be corrected before he can undergo surgery. One of the dangers of hyperkalemia is that it makes neurons and muscle cells more excitable. Why does elevated extracellular potassium have this effect?
- Similar types of potassium channels are found in skeletal muscle cell (plasma) membranes. Predict the effect of general anesthesia on Kevin’s skeletal muscle contraction during surgery.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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