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Bivariate Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA

This assignment accompanies the RNAO Best Practice Guideline

Prevention of Constipation in the Older Adult

Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario (2005). Prevention of Constipation in the Older Adult Population. (Revised). Toronto, Canada: Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario

Prepare your assignment as per APA 6th format, inclusive of a title page, pages numbered, double spaced, reference page etc.

DO NOT RECOPY Question format and DO NOT INSERT ANSWERS IN POINT FORM;

Reference your Salkind text appropriately. Note: all charts and graphs must have a complete title. It is not adequate to use only the variable name for a title. It is not adequate to include chart or graph embedded within a sentence with the chart or graph as the end of the sentence. Follow APA 6th for chart and graphs. Title must convey what the chart is telling the reader.

NOTE: do not use a downloaded copy of this word document as the foundation document on which you prepare and submit your paper (to do so may be considered plagiarism). Create your own new word document.

Use of personal tutors: you may use a tutor ONLY for the explanation and understanding of statistical principles and NOT for the completion or production of this or any assignment in part or in whole. If you cite either an instructor or tutor you must quote as per APA (not to do so, will be considered plagiarism).

For assignment 1 use the C NUR 860 statistics assignment 1 database with data dictionary. This is fictional data.

Grading: 4.0 marks automatic deduction if APA 6th not followed,

Assignments completed in point form will NOT be accepted for grading.

This is an individual assignment, not a group assignment, see course syllabus re directions to not share files, papers, or any part of your assignment with another student, in this or any other semester, as that may constitute academic misconduct.

Bivariate Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA

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Question 1. (Five marks total)

a. Create a contingency (pivot in excel) tables, cut, and paste the excel output for the variables: (You must decide which variables are independent and dependent in each pivot table) (1 mark for each pivot table for a total of 4 marks for all pivot tables). All charts must be labeled completely for full marks.

i. ‘age group’ and ‘gender’.

ii ‘age group’ and ‘history of chronic laxative use’

iii ‘age group’ and ‘toileting level’

iv ‘gender’ and choose any other categorical variable that may be of interest to the researcher to describe this sample (other than age group as conducted in i)

Bivariate Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA

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b. For ONE of the above tables, discuss (critically interpret the statistics) the findings of the descriptive analysis for this sample. Based upon these descriptive results for this sample, for that same table, suggest possible nursing implications for practice and one possible research question. (As this is bivariate analysis, must discuss bivariate practice and research implications ie discuss both variables in their association with each other). 1 mark

Question 2. (Five marks total)

a. Create summary statistics reports of descriptive data for the two variables:

i) ‘typical daily fluid intake in mls’

0.25 arks

ii) ‘typical daily fibre intake in grams’

0.25 marks

b. Explain the standard error (S.E.) number in relation to the sample means for each

variable. 1 mark

c. Write a null hypothesis for the variables in question 2a and b.

State which variables are the independent and dependent and the levels of measure for each 0.5 marks

d. Write a research (an alternate) hypothesis for the variables in question 2c.

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State if hypothesis is directional or not, (and if so, which direction). Logic of independent and dependent variables must be consistent between null and research hypotheses. 0.5 marks

e. For the two variables above, based upon the research hypothesis you created, calculate the Pearson r, and explain relationship in terms of strength and direction. Explain the relationship between the two variables in words. (Note: you are not being asked to test the hypothesis you created above, just to calculate and explain the r) 1 mark

f. Determine the coefficient of determination for the Pearson’s r calculated in question 2e. Explain its meaning in terms of the relationship between the two variables. (this number is found in excel output for the regression

as the r squared) 0.5 marks

g. For the two variables above, based upon the research hypothesis you created, create a scatter plot 0.5 marks

Remember to decide which variable is logically the independent variable (or factor) and which is the dependent variable in order to decide which variable goes on the x-axis and which variable goes in the y-axis, as indicated by the hypothesis you created. Label the variables names and codes for each variable’s categories as per the data dictionary either in a legend or on the plot.

h. Discuss the relationship between the two variables. You must discuss the relationships in words in terms of the hypothesis you presented, ie use the variable names in your discussion of the relationship to explain it (critically interpret the statistics) and possible implications for a) practice and b) research based on these results. Include a discussion of any of the demographic data that you have analyzed in previous assignments. 0.5 marks

Question 3. (Five marks total)

For the following research scenario, state and complete each step of the hypothesis testing procedure.

The researchers wanted to learn, if men and women differed in their functional abilities.

The research question is:

Is functional ability gender specific?

a. Conduct the inferential test by completing EACH step and its sub steps

Bivariate Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA

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Step 1) To select a test statistic:

State the null hypothesis (0.25 marks)

State the research hypothesis. (0.25 marks)

Identify the target population (0.25 marks)

Identify the sample population (0.25 marks)

Identify the independent variable or factor and level of measure

(0.25 marks)

Identify the dependent variable and the level of measure.

(0.25 marks)

State the test to be done and provide your rationale (0.25 marks)

Step 2) To establish the level of significance: (0.25 marks)

State the level of significance for the test:

Step 3) To select a one-tailed or two-tailed test: (0.25)

State your choice of a one or two tailed test

Provide your rationale.

Step 4) Conduct the test in excel and report the calculated test statistic, for either

the one-tailed or two- tailed test, as per your choice above

`You must include the excel output (0.25 marks)

Step 5) To calculate the degrees of freedom: (0.25 marks)

Calculate and state the degrees of freedom for this test

and explain how that number was derived ie show your calculation

Step 6) State the critical value to be exceeded by the calculated t test statistic, for

either the one-tailed or two- tailed test as per your choice above, from the excel output. (0.25 marks)

(Look for this critical value manually in the textbook table for t test statistics by using the one or two tailed test, df and alpha which you determined, in order to compare the calculated t test statistic value from your analysis with the critical value as listed in the table, which will confirm your computer critical value.)

(critical value to be exceeded)

Step 7) Compare the calculated t test statistic with the level of significance at

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which the test statistic fell under the curve; and make a decision to accept or reject the null hypothesis

State the p value at which the test statistic was located under the curve.

Report as test statistic score = , df = , p = (0.25 marks)

State 3 decisions: (0.75 marks)

i) Are the results statistically significant?

ii) Do you accept or reject the null hypothesis?

iii) What do you conclude about the research hypothesis?

b. Discuss (interpret) your findings. (Interpretation includes discussion of descriptive analyses with all relevant data outputs, possible error sources, generalizability and critique of design that would suggest bias).

Discuss the nursing practice and research implications based on the results from the analysis of this research question.

Include a discussion of any of the demographic data that you have analyzed in previous assignments. (One mark for total of 3b.)

Question 4. (Five marks total)

For the following research scenario, state and complete each step of the hypothesis testing procedure.

The researchers wanted to know if the level of toileting independence effected the frequency of weekly bowel movements.

The research question was:

Do clients who require total assistance with toileting have fewer weekly bowel movements (ie less regularity and therefore more constipation) then clients who are independent or require only some assistance with toileting?

a. Conduct the inferential test by completing EACH step and its sub steps

Step 1) To select a test statistic:

State the null hypothesis (0.25 marks)

State the research hypothesis. (0.25 marks)

Identify the target population (0.25 marks)

Bivariate Descriptive Statistics and ANOVA

6

Identify the sample population (0.25 marks)

Identify the independent variable or factor and level of measure

(0.25 marks)

Identify the dependent variable and the level of measure.

(0.25 marks)

State the test to be done and provide your rationale (0.25 marks)

Step 2) To establish the level of significance: (0.25 marks)

State the level of significance for the test:

Step 3) To select a one-tailed or two-tailed test: (0.25)

State your choice of a one or two tailed test

Provide your rationale.

Step 4) Conduct the test in excel and report the calculated test statistic, for either

the one-tailed or two- tailed test, as per your choice above

`You must include the excel output (0.25 marks)

Step 5) To calculate the degrees of freedom: (0.25 marks)

Calculate and state the degrees of freedom for this test

and explain how that number was derived ie show your calculation

Step 6) State the critical value to be exceeded by the calculated t test statistic, for

either the one-tailed or two- tailed test as per your choice above, from the excel output. (0.25 marks)

(Look for this critical value manually in the textbook table for t test statistics by using the one or two tailed test, df and alpha which you determined, in order to compare the calculated t test statistic value from your analysis with the critical value as listed in the table, which will confirm your computer critical value.)

(critical value to be exceeded)

Step 7) Compare the calculated t test statistic with the level of significance at

which the test statistic fell under the curve; and make a decision to accept or reject the null hypothesis

State the p value at which the test statistic was located under the curve.

Report as test statistic score = , df = , p = (0.25 marks)

7

State 3 decisions: (0.75 marks)

i) Are the results statistically significant?

ii) Do you accept or reject the null hypothesis?

iii) What do you conclude about the research hypothesis?

b. Discuss (interpret) your findings. (Interpretation includes discussion of descriptive analyses with all relevant data outputs, possible error sources, generalizability and critique of design that would suggest bias).

Discuss the nursing practice and research implications based on the results from the analysis of this research question.

Include a discussion of any of the demographic data that you have analyzed in previous assignments. (One mark for total of 4b.)

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