Chemical Reactions with Hydrogen Question
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Chemical Reactions with Hydrogen Question
Following are the questions, the detailed content is in the attached word file.
1.) AIR QUALITY
The graph below (A) shows air quality throughout a typical day in a city of two hundred thousand people in Saudi Arabia. It shows the concentrations of ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over a 24-hour day. JNO2 is the rate of loss of NO2 from the atmosphere. Time of day is in 24-hour notation (e.g. 7 is 7:00 am; 15 is 3:00 pm). Figure (B) shows NO2 concentrations over time in the United States from 1980 to 2018.
a.) Why do NO (red) and NO2 (blue) show similar patterns (Figure A)? (2 pts)
b.) Explain what controls the urban ozone concentration (green) in Figure A. (2 pts)
c.) What would be different about these curves if it was raining all day? You can describe and/or draw the differences for comparison (3 pts)
d.) Please explain the decreasing trend of NO2 concentrations in the US from 1980-2018 (Figure B). What led to the decrease in urban air pollution in the US over this time period? (3 pts)
2.) LOCAL RIVERS
a.) Explain discharge data for Town Brook (Figure A). When is discharge high? When is it low? Why? Discharge is measured in volume per time (ft3/sec). (2 points)
b.) Explain discharge data for Charles River (Figure B). When is discharge high? When is it low? Why? Discharge is measured in volume per time (ft3/sec). (2 points)
c.) Compare Town Brook to the Charles River. What is similar? What is different? (2 pts)
d.) Compare the years 2019 and 2020. What is similar? What is different? (2 points)
e.) Which one of these two watersheds appears to be more impermeable? What does this mean for the likelihood of flooding? Why? (2 points)
3) NEPONSET RIVER WATERSHED
The Neponset River Watershed is about 340 km2 in area and includes parts of 14 cities and towns.
a.) Is the Neponset River Watershed healthy? What measurements in Neponset River Estuary (at the mouth of the Neponset River) would imply that the Neponset River Watershed (the land) was healthy? Please describe 2 indicators (measurements) of estuarine health, and what sources/processes in the watershed lead them to have impacts on the estuary. (5 points)
b.) How much is a clean, healthy Neponset River Watershed ecosystem worth (in dollars)? Explain how you determined this value. (5 points)
c.) Please list three (3) ecosystem services that the Neponset River Watershed could provide you personally. Describe the circumstances (when, where) that you could benefit from these ecosystem services. (3 points)
4.) COMPLEX SYSTEMS
Humans are increasing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. An emergent property of this complex system is an increase in global average temperatures. The climate system is a complex system characterized by thresholds and feedbacks loops.
a.) Give three examples of thresholds or tipping points in environmental science. (3 points)
b.) Please describe two positive feedback loops in the climate system. (2 points)
c.) Please describe two negative feedback loops in the climate system. (2 points)
d.) Why is there uncertainty in predicting how climate will change? (3 points)
5.) SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS
We have examined semi-enclosed ecosystems where mass is conserved inside the boundaries, and only energy (light, heat) is exchanged.
a.) Do you think a goldfish could live in Biosphere 2 for five years? Explain your reasoning considering life span, and carbon, water, and energy needs. (2 points)
b.) Do you think a bald eagle could live in Biosphere 2 for five years? Explain your reasoning considering life span, and carbon, water, and energy needs. (2 points)
c.) Describe the water cycle within Biosphere 2. How did the Biospherians obtain clean drinking water? Please explain. (4 points)
d.) Describe the energy balance in Biosphere 2. What were the energy inputs? What were the energy outputs? Were they balanced throughout the year? (4 points)
6.) TINY HOMES
A tiny house is a good example of a semi-closed system so you can keep track of what comes in and out.
a.) Suppose you bring 50 pounds of groceries into your tiny house each week. Please estimate how many pounds of each type of waste leaves your tiny home each week. Does this add up to 50 pounds? Why or why not? Where do the various forms end up? (5 points)
b.) If you install a low flow (1.8 gallon/min) showerhead instead of a regular (3.3 gallon/min) showerhead, how much water would you save for a 10-minute shower? (3 points)
c.) Your gas company charges you for the amount of natural you use each month in thermals. How much energy (in gallons of gasoline) do you use if you use 400 thermals natural gas in a year? You can use the following website calculator to help you convert units, but please show your work. How far could you drive a car in month with the same energy? (2 points)
7.) ENERGY SOURCES–SOLAR POWER
Burning fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and petroleum emits CO2 which leads to climate change. There are alternative energy sources that lead to much lower emissions of CO2, but each have pros and cons.
a.) How does an artificial leaf work? Where does the energy come from? What is the resulting form of energy? How is this stored? (4 points)
b.) What are some of the benefits of using hydrogen fuel cells? What are some of the limitations? Be specific. (4 points)
c.) What are some environmental advantages of using artificial leaves combined with fuel cells? (2 points)
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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