Copi, Irving M Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition Routledge
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Copi, Irving M Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition Routledge
Topic 5 Reading Exercises
Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition. Routledge.
EXERCISE A INSTRUCTIONS
State the converses of the following propositions, and indicate which of them are equivalent to the given propositions:
1. No people who are considerate of others are reckless drivers who pay no attention to traffic regulations.
2. All graduates of West Point are commissioned officers in the U.S. Army.
3. Some European cars are overpriced and underpowered automobiles.
4. No reptiles are warm-blooded animals.
5. Some professional wrestlers are elderly persons who are incapable of doing an honest days work.
EXERCISE B INSTRUCTIONS
State the obverses of the following propositions:
1. Some college athletes are professionals.
2. No organic compounds are metals.
3. Some clergy are not abstainers.
4. No geniuses are conformists.
5. All objects suitable for boat anchors are objects that weigh at least fifteen pounds.
EXERCISE C INSTRUCTIONS
State the contrapositives of the following propositions and indicate which of them are equivalent to the given propositions.
1. All journalists are pessimists.
2. Some soldiers are not officers.
3. All scholars are nondegenerates.
4. All things weighing less than fifty pounds are objects not more than four feet high.
5. Some noncitizens are not nonresidents.
EXERCISE D INSTRUCTIONS
If All socialists are pacifists is true, what may be inferred about the truth or falsehood of the following propositions? That is, which can be known to be true, which can be known to be false, and which are undetermined?
1. Some nonpacifists are not nonsocialists.
2. No socialists are nonpacifists.
3. All nonsocialists are nonpacifists.
4. No nonpacifists are socialists.
5. No nonsocialists are nonpacifists.
6. All nonpacifists are nonsocialists.
7. No pacifists are nonsocialists.
8. Some socialists are not pacifists.
9. All pacifists are socialists.
10. Some nonpacifists are socialists.
EXERCISE E INSTRUCTIONS
If No scientists are philosophers is true, what may be inferred about the truth or falsehood of the following propositions? That is, which can be known to be true, which can be known to be false, and which are undetermined?
1. No nonphilosophers are scientists.
2. Some nonphilosophers are not nonscientists.
3. All nonscientists are nonphilosophers.
4. No scientists are nonphilosophers.
5. No nonscientists are nonphilosophers.
6. All philosophers are scientists.
7. Some nonphilosophers are scientists.
8. All nonphilosophers are nonscientists.
9. Some scientists are not philosophers. No philosophers are nonscientists.
EXERCISE F INSTRUCTIONS
If Some saints were martyrs is true, what may be inferred about the truth or falsehood of the following propositions? That is, which can be known to be true, which can be known to be false, and which are undetermined?
1. All saints were martyrs.
2. All saints were nonmartyrs.
3. Some martyrs were saints.
4. No saints were martyrs.
5. All martyrs were nonsaints.
6. Some nonmartyrs were saints.
7. Some saints were not nonmartyrs.
8. No martyrs were saints.
9. Some nonsaints were martyrs.
10. Some martyrs were nonsaints.
11. Some saints were not martyrs.
12. Some martyrs were not saints.
13. No saints were nonmartyrs.
14. No nonsaints were martyrs.
15. Some martyrs were not nonsaints.
G. If Some merchants are not pirates is true, what may be inferred about the truth or falsehood of the following propositions? That is, which can be known to be true, which can be known to be false, and which are undetermined?
1. No pirates are merchants.
2. No merchants are nonpirates.
3. Some merchants are nonpirates.
4. All nonmerchants are pirates.
5. Some nonmerchants are nonpirates.
6. All merchants are pirates.
7. No nonmerchants are pirates.
8. No pirates are nonmerchants.
9. All nonpirates are nonmerchants.
10. Some nonpirates are not nonmerchants.
11. Some nonpirates are merchants.
12. No nonpirates are merchants.
13. Some pirates are merchants.
14. No merchants are nonpirates.
15. No merchants are pirates.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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