Differentiating Neurons and Neuroglia Assignment Essay
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Differentiating Neurons and Neuroglia Assignment Essay
Hands On Lab: Spinal Cord and Reflexes
Grading: Divide number incorrect by total number of questions (60)
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Type your answers and copy all pictures directly into this Word document. Submit it via the blackboard submission link in Word format (docx).
- Answers typed into a blank document or submitted in the incorrect format will not be accepted.
- Pictures will not be accepted as stand-alone files.
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You will complete a series of activities to help you better understand how messages are transmitted via our brain and spinal cord to our peripheral nervous system.
Activity 1: Divisions of the Nervous System
Identify the divisions of the nervous system (A-G). Each letter will only be used once.
- Central nervous system (CNS)_____
- Peripheral nervous system (PNS)___
- Rest and digest
- Brain and spinal cord
- Brain of the gut
- Fight or flight
- Nerves and ganglia
Activity 2: Nervous Tissue
Nervous tissue consists of 2 main groups of cells, neurons and neuroglia. Neurons conduct electrical impulses while neuroglia provide support. This support can include, but is not limited to: neuronal insulation, immunity, protection, nutrient access, and waste disposal. Neurons, on the other hand, are largely classified by the number of processes per cell. Therefore, both neurons and neuroglia can be classified by their structure and function.
Use the terms provided below to differentiate neurons and neuroglia. Each term will only be used once.
- Satellite cells
- Schwann cells
- Ependymal cells
Matching Description Provided Term Matching Description Provided Term 8. 1 axon and 1 dendrite 9. Immune in CNS 10. 1 axon and many dendrites 11. Myelin in CNS 12. Single cell process 13. Cerebrospinal fluid 14. Support in CNS 15. Myelin in PNS 16. Support in PNS
Activity 3: Organization of Spinal Nerves
Identify the spinal nerves and plexuses (A-K). Each letter will only be used once.
- Lumbo-sacral plexus
- Cervical nerves
- Cauda equina
- Lumbar nerves
- Coccygeal nerves
- Sacral plexus
- Brachial plexus
- Thoracic nerves
- Lumbar plexus
- Sacral nerves
- Cervical plexus
Activity 4: Meninges
Several connective tissue membranes called meninges surround the spinal cord and brain. Between these are spaces that contain fluid, fat, or other substances.
Put the structures in order from superficial (1) to deep (8):
- Subdural space
- Subarachnoid space
- Dura mater
- Pia mater
- Arachnoid mater
- Spinal cord
- Epidural space
Activity 5: Spinal Cord Cross Section
The spinal cord is the major relay center to and from the body and brain. It has sections of both white matter (myelinated axons for sending) and gray matter (cell bodies, dendrites, etc.—basically “thinking matter”). It is connected to the spinal nerves for transmission.
Label the spinal cord (A-J). Each letter will only be used once.
- Posterior gray horn
- Dorsal white column
- Anterior gray horn
- Lateral gray horn
- Central canal
- Ventral white column
- Lateral white column
- Posterior root
- Posterior root ganglion
- Anterior root
Activity 6: Parts of a Reflex Arc
Complete the chart below by adding in the parts and functions of a typical reflex arc
Number Function 48. #1 49. 50. #2 51. 52. #3 53. 54. #4 55. 56. #5 57.
Activity 6: Reaction Time
Reaction time is a measure how quickly organism responds to a stimulus. Reflexes and reactions, while seeming similar, are quite different. Reflexes are involuntary, used to protect the body, and are faster than a reaction. Reflexes are usually a negative feedback loop and act to help return the body to its normal functioning stability, or homeostasis. Reactions are actually a symphony of hundreds of thousands of neurons working together to produce a conscious decision. We have to decide what we would like to do regarding this stimulus. Furthermore, the quickness of reaction times can differ depending on what type of stimulus you are reacting to and what kind of task you are doing.
Test 1- Visual Response
- You will need one 12-inch ruler (that can read cm) to complete this test.
- Have your subject sit at a table with their dominant hand over the edge.
- Hold the ruler at the 30 cm mark so that the 0 cm end is just at your subject’s index finger.
- Tell your subject that when you release the ruler, they are to grab it as fast as possible.
- DO NOT MAKE ANY SOUNDS OR GESTURES THAT INDICATE WHEN YOU WILL DROP IT!
- They will need to only react to the visual stimulus of seeing the ruler being released.
- Record the cm mark above the index finger in the chart below.
- Repeat the experiment 3 more times.
- Switch with your subject and you do the visual only catch 4 times as well.
Test 2- Auditory Response
- Have your subject sit back at a table as they did during the first test. We will still be using the dominant hand
- Blindfold your subject.
- Tell the subject that you will say “RELEASE” as you release the ruler.
- Once they grab it, record the centimeter mark and repeat 3 times.
- Switch with your subject and complete 4 times
Test 3- Tactile Responses
- Have your subject sit back at the table with their dominant hand once again over the edge.
- Blind fold subject again.
- Tell the subject that you will touch the shoulder of their non-dominant arm as you release the ruler.
- Give NO AUDITORY CUES- SIMPLY TOUCH
- Record the centimeter mark and repeat 3 times
- Switch with your subject and complete 4 times.
- Complete the table with UNITS (cm and sec as needed)
Visual (cm) Auditory (cm) Tactile (cm) 1. 1. 1. Subject 2. 2. 2. 1 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. Average (cm) Reaction time (sec) 1. 1. 1. Subject 2. 2. 2. 2 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. Average (cm) Reaction time (sec)
Average distance (cm) Reaction time (sec) 1 0.045 2 0.064 3 0.078 4 0.090 5 0.101 6 0.111 7 0.120 8 0.128 9 0.136 10 0.143 11 0.150 12 0.156
To determine your reaction time, use the table above.
Insert 2 pictures of you and your subject completing the activity.
- The average reaction time for humans is 0.25 seconds for a visual stimulus, 0.17 for an audio stimulus, and 0.15 seconds for a touch stimulus.
- With this information in mind, which of your senses had the fastest reaction time?
- Why do you believe this is? In order to receive full credit, your answer must be at least 4-6 sentences and include one peer reviewed resource. Please place the citation immediately below your answer.
- A variety of factors may impact tactile reaction time. Some studies have indicated that higher levels of education correlate with faster responses. This may be attributed to an elevated information processing speed. Also, routine movements have been positively correlated with reaction time. For example, right-handed people respond faster with their right hand when using a right-handed computer mouse.
- With this information in mind, how do your results compare with the nationwide average (approximately 0.15 seconds)?
- Explain why you think you are faster or slower than the norms. In order to receive full credit, your answer must be at least 4-6 sentences and include one peer reviewed resource. Please place the citation immediately below your answer.
- Describe at least two other factors that can impact reaction time. In order to receive full credit, your answer must be at least 4-6 sentences and include one peer reviewed resource. Please place the citation immediately below your answer.
*Reaction Time Table Source: Top End Sports (opens in new window)
*All images in this lab are copyright of McGraw-Hill
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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