ECON301 Regional Economic Development in Africa
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ECON301 Regional Economic Development in Africa
ECON301 Regional Economic Development in Africa Test # 7
Dr. Edouard Mafoua
TEST # 7 – UNIT # 7
The Environment and Development
Name _________________________________________ Test Score________
Part A: Multiple-Choice Questions (20 points)
- A major cause of environmental degradation in African countries is
(a) population growth.
(b) rural poverty.
(c) rapid urbanization.
(d) all of the above.
- Sustainable development means
(a) emphasizing the role of the market.
(b) emphasizing the role of government.
(c) meeting the present generation’s needs without compromising the needs of future generations.
(d) maintaining output growth at a constant rate.
- Which of the following environmental problems are largely caused by persistent poverty?
(b) Soil erosion.
(c) Ground water contamination.
(d) All of the above.
- Which of the following conditions is violated if there is a free rider problem?
- The “cost of rainforest preservation” can be lowered for African countries by
(a) the development of alternative rainforest products.
(b) research on agriculture in rainforest soils.
(c) encouraging rainforest settlement of the poor.
(d) subsidies for activities like cattle raising.
- The portion of an African country’s overall assets that is directly related to the environment, such as forests and soil quality, is known as
(a) environmental capital.
(b) debt for nature swaps.
(c) protected areas.
(d) common property assets.
- International resources shared by all countries such as oceans and air are known as
(a) global commons.
(b) free rider problems.
(c) nonrenewable resources.
(d) cooperative resources.
- The annual income that can be consumed without diminishing the total capital assets of a nation is
(a) purchasing power parity income.
(b) sustainable national income.
(c) environmental capital stock.
(d) per capita income.
- An example of a biomass fuel is
(b) nuclear fuel.
- In what way do African countries make the largest contribution to the global concentrations of greenhouse gases?
(a) vehicle emissions.
Part B: Critical Analysis (20 points)
Please write five paragraphs on “the effects of climate change on the agricultural production of your Central African country. According to Todaro and Smith (2015; Economic Development, pp.503-507) climate variability and change (e.g. hurricane, higher average temperatures, floods from heavy rains, prolonged droughts…) will worsen agricultural production, including access to food in many countries in Africa. You will use supply and demand analysis to illustrate the likely effects of climate change on the equilibrium price and quantity in one of the agricultural markets in your Central African country. The following markets are examples of agricultural markets in Africa:
a). the market for export crops (Cocoa, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts, cotton, rubber, tea, palm oil, tobacco…)
b). the market for fruits such as bananas, mangoes, oranges, tangerines, pineapples, papayas, avocados, watermelons, guavas…
c). the market for vegetables such as sweet potato, cooking banana (plantain), cassava, peanut, common bean, peppers, eggplant, cucumber…
d). the market for livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens…
e). the market for cereal crops such as rice, maize, millet, sorghum, wheat…
You must select one specific market (for example: the market for export crops) and one specific crop produced in your Central African country (for example: cocoa).Your analysis will consist of five sections. Each section must contain at least one paragraph. Each paragraph must contain at least three sentences:
- Explanation of issue (4 points): You will clearly state the problem/issue and include any information necessary to fully explain the issue.
- Evidence (4 points): You will select appropriate evidence to thoroughly investigate the problem, and critically evaluate the viewpoints.
- Assumptions (4 points): You thoroughly analyze your assumptions and include relevant contextual information.
- Your position (perspective, thesis/hypothesis; 4 points): You will present a hypothesis that takes into account the complexities of the issue.
- Conclusions and related outcomes (4 points): Your conclusions will be logically tied to the evidence and outlined.
Part C: Environmental Indicators Analysis (10 points)
Please go to
http://www.afdb.org/en/documents/document/gender-poverty-and-environmental-indicators-on-african-countries-2009-16442/ (Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on African Countries 2009)
a). Fill in the following table using Central African countries data:
Country Annual Rate of Deforestation (%)
Annual Rate of Reforestation (%)
C02 Emissions per Capita
Energy Consumption per Capita (kg)
Forest-to-People Ratio (ha)
Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Congo Democratic Republic of Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon
b). How does your “African Country’s” annual rate of deforestation (%) compare with that of other Central African countries?
c). How does your “African Country’s” annual rate of reforestation (%) compare with that of other Central African countries?
d). How does your “African Country’s” C02 emissions per capita compare with that of other Central African countries?
e). How does your “African Country’s” energy consumption per capita compare with that of other Central African countries?
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