Exam Practice for Isolated System Specific Heat, Climate Change and Water Properties
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
2021 ESS 21 Exam 1 Study Guide
The lecture videos and questions, weekly exams, and discussion worksheets are your primary sources of material, with the textbook being utilized only for extra background on an as-needed basis. You will not need to know a phrase or topic that is in the textbook but was not mentioned at all in the lectures for the midterm.
The major subjects we’ve studied thus far are listed here; instead of memorizing, focus on understanding and implementing your new information. I won’t ask you to write down definitions; instead, I’ll offer you formulae (although they may come up in multiple-choice questions).
We’ll be proctoring the exam online using Respondus Lockdown Browser and Monitor, so you’ll need a working webcam and microphone. Within Canvas Quizzes, the exam will consist of a mix of short answers and multiple-choice questions. You are allowed to take as many paper notes as you want throughout the exam, but you are not permitted to use calculators or other technological devices, and you are not permitted to speak with anyone else. Any
arithmetic problems will be simple calculations that you can solve in your head or on paper because calculators are not permitted
Logical fallacies, systems, and feedbacks (from Lecture 1)
– Recognize the features of science denial, such as cherry-picking and determining which logical fallacy is being employed in a statement/argument.
– Be able to differentiate between open and closed systems.
– Recognize if anything is an open or closed system, as well as the repercussions of doing so.
– Recognize the Earth System’s four primary reservoirs and which one contains the cryosphere.
– For simple systems, be able to identify reservoirs, fluxes, and calculate residence times
– Know how to create, recognize, and explain good and negative feedback.
What determines a planet’s temperature (Earth’s energy balance) (from Lecture 2)
– Be able to explain how blackbody radiation changes with temperature using the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and Wien’s Law.
– Be able to define, explain, and interpret diagrams depicting the five elements that affect the Earth’s energy balance:
o The brightness of the sun
o The Sun’s Distance
o The albedo of the Earth’s atmosphere
· Energy emitted by the Earth in order to counteract incoming energy
o Greenhouse Gases
– Be able to consider how these characteristics alter over time on Earth and how we may apply the same concepts to other terrestrial planets, such as Snowball Earth, the Faint Young Sun Paradox, and Venus.
From Lecture 3: Earth’s Regional Climates and Why We Change Our Climate
– Be able to differentiate between the terms “weather” and “climate”
– Understand why the poles are colder than the Equator.
– Explain and analyze graphs of Earth’s orbit and tilt to explain why seasons occur or determine which season the northern or southern hemisphere is in.
– Be able to explain why highland locations are colder.
– Recognize and be able to describe, explain, understand, and analyze diagrams depicting how climate could change as a result of:
· Changing the amount and distribution of energy that enters the system
o The amount of incoming energy reflected changes.
o Changing the amount of absorbed outgoing energy
o Changes in the climate system’s internal components
From Lecture 4 The Climate of the Earth in the Past, Present, and Future
– Recognize that the climate system is dynamic and be able to provide examples of how we learn about past climate changes.
– Have a broad idea of how diverse climates have been in the past, as well as how the elements that produce climate change are important on various timescales.
o No sign of ice so much warmer and higher sea levels during much of Earth’s history, e.g. Cretaceous 100 million years ago
o Plate tectonic movements altered albedo and atmospheric and ocean circulation, resulting in gradual cooling from 50 million years ago to the present. In addition, the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has continuously decreased.
o Last 2 million years – Milankovitch cycles and amplifying feedbacks caused glacials (cold times) and interglacials (warm periods) every 40,000 to 100,000 years.
o Interglacial climate has been relatively steady during the last 10,000 years.
– Be able to explain how our climate has changed throughout time.
– Be able to articulate why our climate is changing.
– Be able to describe how future changes are predicted:
o What elements are taken into account in climate models?
o What are some of the biggest climate model uncertainties?
o What are “representative concentration paths” and how do we use them? (You don’t need to know the specific details of population/energy source changes in each scenario, but you should grasp why they differ)
Anthropogenic climate change today and in the future (from Lecture 5)
– Be able to predict how our climate will change by the year 2100.
– Be able to explain the five important points about climate change’s impacts on the southwest United States and how they connect to the cryosphere.
– Be able to describe how we can avoid worst-case climate change scenarios
o Conservation, i.e. a reduction in goods and energy consumption
· Energy efficiency, which entails lowering the quantity of energy used by goods and services.
o Energy that is carbon-free:
Understand how fossil fuels are used to generate power.
Be able to give instances of carbon-free energy sources and how they might be used to replace fossil fuels in energy generation.
Explain why we haven’t made the move to renewable energy sources yet.
· Carbon capture and storage, which is the process of capturing and storing carbon emissions.
o Geoengineering approaches:
Be able to explain and illustrate how they wor
Describe and explain the benefits and drawbacks of employing these options.
– Recognize that various states in the United States, as well as countries across the world, are taking steps to reduce carbon emissions in order to avoid the worst-case scenario of climate change.
From Lecture 6: Why is water so strange and wonderful?
– Recognize that we all require a substantial amount of water in our daily lives, but that most of that water is “hidden.”
– Be able to define and explain the features of the water molecule, as well as why water molecules form hydrogen bonds.
– Be able to define and explain several of water’s peculiar qualities, as well as why they are crucial to the Earth’s system.
· Thermal qualities, such as the ability to perform simple calculations involving specific heat
o Water density in solid, liquid, and gaseous states
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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