Government Business Relations Lobbying Essay
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PA 315 Government Business Relations Lobbying Essay
Relationship between government and business
Government as a regulator of business
The government regulates the activities of businesses in five core areas:
advertising, labor, environmental impact, privacy and health and safety
Business imposes its will on government
Business can influence government through:
campaign funding, lobbying, and regulatory agencies
What is lobbying?
What role does it play in the relationship between government and business?
What is lobbying?
According to Ni (2016), “lobbying can be defined as the process by which representatives of certain groups are attempting to influence – directly or indirectly – public officials in favor of or against a particular cause.” (p. 202)
The term “lobbyist” harkens back to the days when people hung around in lobbies waiting to get a word in with legislators heading to vote.
Represent a professional group that specializes in legislative or administrative advocacy
Services purchased (like lawyers or contractors) by any individual, organized interest, organization, or government
Lobbyist can effect legislative actions
Engaging in strategic advertising
Building advocacy coalitions
Developing get-out-and-vote strategies
Provide critical information/data used by legislators to reach informed and educated decisions
Different types of lobbying
refers to attempts to influence a legislative body through communication with a member or employee of a legislative body, or with a government official who participates in formulating legislation. (IRS.GOV, 2019)
Grass root lobbying
refers to attempts to influence legislation by attempting to affect the opinion of the public with respect to the legislation and encouraging the audience to take action with respect to the legislation. (IRS.GOV, 2019)
Lobbying in the United States
Since 1876, Congress has required all professional lobbyist to register with the Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives
First Amendment of the US Constitution “right of the people…to petition the government for a redress of of grievances.”
U.S. Supreme Court (1967): [The] rights to assemble peaceably and to petition for a redress of grievances are among the most precious of the liberties safeguarded by the Bill of Rights. These rights, moreover, are intimately connected, both in origin and in purpose, with the other First Amendment rights of free speech and free press.
What must a lobbyist do…
Disclose the amount of money they are paid
File quarterly reports identifying contacts made with elected officials
File semi-annual reports listing contributions made to political campaigns or elected officials
Not allowed to give money or gifts directly to members of Congress
What is lobbying and can it be good?
Lobbying: Local, National, and International
Limited in scope and more specific in terms of outcomes
Targets procurement practices and ordinances (directly and indirectly)
Scope of influence includes: council members, city administrators, public opinion
Cultivates personal relationships over a period of time
Scope of influence includes: all three branches and in the federal bureaucracy
Difficult and expensive
Long term oriented
Scope of influence includes: non-governmental organizations (NGOs), foreign governments
Business engaging in lobbying
Determine what kind of lobbying strategy is preferred
Decide what issues to lobby and desired outcomes
Entity engaged in the lobbying activity
Total lobbying spending in the US from 1998-2017 (in billion US dollars)
Number of registered active lobbyist in the US from 2000-2017
Ranking of the top lobbying firms in the United States in 2017, by expenses (in million U.S. dollars)
Top lobbying industries in the United States in 2017, by total lobbying spending (in million U.S. dollars)
Lobbyists tend to get a bad rap — is lobbying bad?
Hiring former officials from and into businesses: The “revolving door”
The practice of hiring former officials into and from businesses is known as the “revolving door.” (Ni, 2016).
It is a legal and accepted practice for a number of governments around the world.
Return on Investment for lobbying.
In 2017 alone, private interests spent $3.37 billion on lobbying — and they did it because they get an unbeatable return on their investment (ROI).
There’s actually a correlation between how much a company spends on lobbyists and how much they get from the federal government. This has been dubbed the “Return On Investment For Lobbying” (ROIFL)
Lobbyists Raise Millions for Congressmembers’ Campaign Funds.
On average, a candidate has to raise more than $14,000 a day, 7 days a week to win a Senate seat. A candidate needs upwards of $1.6 million to win a seat in the House.
Lobbying in an ethical manner
Rewarding those with more money
Revolving door – easier access to lawmakers, colleagues, access codes to office, facilities, and friendships
State and Federal requirements to register and file reports
Access to appointment books at a local level
Earmarks –requiring names of sponsors be published at least 24 hours before a bill is to be voted on
Provisions benefiting particular industries or organizations that lawmakers insert into appropriation bills …” (Nadler & Schulman, 2019, p. 1)
Promoting an agenda ethically…
“Trust lies at the foundation of the smooth and effective operation of any country, its business, and its government.”
(Ni, 2016, p. 219)
1995 Lobbying Disclosure Act (LCA) – defined a federal lobbyist as someone who is employed or retained by a client for compensation, has made more than one lobbying contact for his or her client, and spends at least 20 percent of his or her time working on lobbying activities for a client during a three month period.
2006 Lobbying Transparency and Accountability Act (LTAA) amended the LDA’s language and requirements and added further restrictions and disclosure obligations on lobbyists and their lobbying activities.
2007 Honest Leadership and Open Government (HLOGA) attempted to limit or even exclude revolving door practices, to increase transparency, and to minimize the use of privately funded gifts and travel.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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Government Business Relations Lobbying Essay
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