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Hypothesis testing

Order ID53563633773 TypeEssay Writer LevelMasters StyleAPA Sources/References4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order5-10 Pages

Description/Paper InstructionsHypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to make inferences about a population based on a sample of data. It is a fundamental tool in scientific research, allowing researchers to test hypotheses and make decisions based on statistical evidence. Hypothesis testing involves the following steps:

- Formulating the null and alternative hypotheses: The null hypothesis (H0) is a statement about the population parameter that we want to test. The alternative hypothesis (Ha) is a statement that contradicts the null hypothesis and is what we hope to prove.
- Choosing a significance level: The significance level (alpha) is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true. It is usually set at 0.05 or 0.01.
- Collecting data: A sample of data is collected from the population of interest.
- Computing the test statistic: The test statistic is a numerical value that measures the difference between the observed sample data and the null hypothesis. The choice of test statistic depends on the type of data and the hypothesis being tested.
- Determining the p-value: The p-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic as extreme or more extreme than the observed value, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. It is compared to the significance level to determine whether to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis.
- Drawing conclusions: If the p-value is less than or equal to the significance level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. If the p-value is greater than the significance level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis.
There are two types of errors that can occur in hypothesis testing: Type I error and Type II error. Type I error occurs when we reject the null hypothesis when it is actually true. The probability of Type I error is equal to the significance level. Type II error occurs when we fail to reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false. The probability of Type II error depends on the sample size, the level of significance, and the effect size.

There are several common hypothesis tests, including:

- One-sample t-test: Used to test whether the mean of a single population is equal to a specified value.
- Two-sample t-test: Used to test whether the means of two populations are equal.
- Paired t-test: Used to test whether the mean difference between two related samples is equal to a specified value.
- Chi-square test: Used to test whether there is a significant association between two categorical variables.
- ANOVA: Used to test whether there are significant differences in the means of three or more groups.
Hypothesis testing is a powerful tool for making decisions based on data. However, it is important to keep in mind that statistical significance does not necessarily imply practical significance. Researchers must also consider the effect size, sample size, and other factors when interpreting the results of a hypothesis test.

Hypothesis testing

RUBRIC

QUALITY OF RESPONSENO RESPONSEPOOR / UNSATISFACTORYSATISFACTORYGOODEXCELLENTC ontent (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking.30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking.40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete.50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing.Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points).Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper.5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6^{th}Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper.10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6^{th}Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources.15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6^{th}Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources.20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6^{th}Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment.Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage.20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free.Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6^{th}edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6^{th}edition requirements whatsoever.5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6^{th}edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment.10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6^{th}edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.## GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER

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