|Perfect Number of Pages to Order||5-10 Pages|
Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures Assignment
One significant difference between individualistic and collectivistic cultures is how membe rs of the cultures save face. The term face refers to the standing or position a person has in the eyes of others, or “an individual’s claimed sense of positive image in the context of socia l interaction” (Oetzel & Ting- Toomey, 2003, p. 600). When we attempt to “save face,” we strive to maintain a positive po sition in the eyes of other people with whom we communicate or to respect the position of others. When we “lose face,” we are embarrassed or humiliated, and we believe that our po sition in the eyes of others is diminished. When a culturally individualist person’s face is thr eatened, they prefer communication from others that is direct and helps them manage the t hreat. On the other hand, collectivist people prefer that others communicate with them indi rectly in order to retain harmony (Merkin, 2015). Those from collectivist cultures are more likely to use plural possessive pronouns (e.g., “our”) rather than singular possessive pronou ns (e.g., “my”), though we are not sure whether collectivism influences language or if indivi duals are primed to use collectivist language (Na & Choi, 2009). The concept of face appears in most cultures, but it manifests itself in different ways. Interc ultural communication researchers John Oetzel and Stella Ting- Toomey (2003) have found that those in collectivistic cultures place more emphasis on the face of others. In an individualistic culture, face is often the source of one’s personal pride o
r self- respect, and saving face is a personal goal. It is one reason why one may make excuses, rati onalize, laugh, or excuse her behavior rather than admit she is wrong. For example, the first officers discussed in Malcolm Gladwell’s book Outliers likely were swayed by their perspec tives about face, meaning that they chose not to threaten the captain’s or air traffic controll er’s face when they made a request or offered a suggestion, even when lives were at stake. But U.S. air traffic controllers were more interested in accomplishing tasks rather than savi ng face, which the first officers could have viewed as a threat to their own face. In a collectivistic culture, face influences a person’s status in the social group or in society a s a whole, and people feel an obligation not only to save face themselves but also to help ot hers save face and not bring shame on their group (Fitzgerald, 2003). In this way, individua ls in a collectivistic culture might view their self- concept through the lens of their group or community memberships. In China’s collectivisti c culture, for instance, the Chinese word for “politeness” includes four components: respect fulness, modesty, a warm attitude, and meeting standards. In this culture, saving face mean s first respecting others by showing appreciation and admiration for them. Second, one mu st be modest, which is demonstrated by not calling attention to oneself or elevating oneself. Third, an attitude of warmth requires that people show consideration, kindness, and hospi tality to others. Finally, one must behave in ways that are appropriate and that meet society ’s standards. To meet these goals in conversation, Chinese people often present themselves in a modest or self- deprecating way and will avoid saying what they actually think if it might hurt others (Chen g, 2004).
Like low-context and high- context communication characteristics, the differences between individualistic and collecti vistic cultures exist on a continuum. There are elements of individualism and collectivism i n all cultures, but to greater or lesser degrees. For example, Germany is classified as a mode rately individualistic culture, whereas Japan is moderately collectivistic (Oetzel & Ting- Toomey, 2003). Nearly three- quarters of the world’s cultures can be described as collectivistic (Triandis, 1989).
Based on what we have discussed about the differences between individualistic and collecti vistic cultures, you probably understand how conflicts can occur when people interact with others who have different values on issues such as what is best for the group versus what i s best for the individual, being unique versus fitting in, and self- reliance versus cooperation. If you want to be a competent communicator when interacting with individuals from other cultures, you must strive to understand the social norms of pe ople from other cultural backgrounds. Figure 3.3 summarizes some differences in the chara cteristics of individualistic and collectivistic cultures that can influence communication.
Figure 3.3: Communication in individualistic versus collectivistic cultures
Similar to cultural orientations toward low or high context, a culture can have a tendency t oward individualism or collectivism. There are elements of both in all cultures, but to great er or lesser degrees.
Source: Based on information from Novinger, T. (2001). Intercultural communication: A practical guide. Austin, TX: Universit y of Texas Press
Cultural Differences and Interpersonal Communication
Narrated video covering communication differences between low-context and high- context cultures and individualistic and collectivistic cultures.
Time Orientation and Culture Assignment
Time is a finite concept; we measure it in seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, and years or by cycles of the moon and tides, the weather, and the movement of planets and stars in t he solar system. Time is also a form of nonverbal communication that is structured formall y and informally by a culture. Chronemics is the study of how a culture structures and uses time, including how individuals perceive, structure, emphasize, and respond to time, as wel l as how they interpret messages about time. Though time is a structured and formalized en tity within and across cultures now, it was not always this way. For example, standard time in the United States did not commence until the spread of railroads as a popular form of hu man transportation in the mid- 1800s made it necessary to establish cultural agreement about exact time. Trains were the f irst method of transportation that could move passengers from place to place in a relatively short amount of time. Unless 2 p.m. was the same time for every station, it would be difficu lt for passengers to arrive at the station on time and board the trains before departure. Issu es such as the importance of punctuality, the timing and duration of business and social visi ts, and the amount of time you should wait for someone who is late all vary from culture to culture. For example, arriving five minutes late for a business appointment in the United St ates would usually require a brief apology, but it may not be even be noticed in another cou ntry. When you communicate with people of different cultures, variations in how you structure a nd use time can cause people to take offense when none was intended. However, time can a lso be used to send intentional messages to another person, and the person who has more p ower or influence in the interaction typically uses it for that purpose. For example, former U.S. President Harry Truman reportedly once kept a newspaper editor waiting for an appoi ntment for more than 45 minutes. Finally, the editor asked the president’s aide to check wit h the president about the long wait. Truman is said to have replied that when he had been a junior senator, the editor had kept him waiting for an hour and a half, so, as far as Truman was concerned, the editor still had “45 minutes to go” (Sowell, 1994). Since Truman was pr esident, and had more power than he did as a junior senator, he chose to and was permitte d to use time in this intentional way. President Truman also intentionally emphasized the p ower distance between himself and the reporter using time as an interpersonal communica tion message. Time can, of course, be used to send a positive message as well— arriving very early for a presentation or submitting a project early can indicate great intere st. Additionally, consider the length of time you may take to text a friend back. While you m ay simply view other activities as more important than texting, this may negatively impact your friend’s perception of you. Research shows that this is indeed true with instructors— students tend to more positively perceive those professors who respond quickly to their e- mails (Tatum, Martin, & Kemper, 2018).
Keith Levit Photography/Thinkstock
Though time is a finite concept, it is a form of nonverbal communication that differs across cultures. Chronemics is the study of how cultures structure and use time.
Hall (1959) introduced one important relationship between time and culture when he desc ribed monochronic and polychronic systems of time. In monochronic time system cultures, members prefer to attend to or schedule one task at a time. Time is viewed as a tangible an d valuable item that can be gained or lost, and individuals adhere to formal time, which is r egulated by a clock. Sayings such as “Time is money” and “I’m wasting time” are expression s of a monochronic time system. In the United States, for example, people tend to be punctu al about appointments, to focus on one thing at a time, and to get to the point quickly in con versation, even interrupting others, if necessary, to move the conversation along. Such beha viors reflect an emphasis on concentration, commitment to a task, promptness, and compar tmentalization, which are characteristic of a monochronic time system culture. In contrast, individuals in polychronic time system cultures prefer to focus on and schedule multiple tasks at once. Time, according to this system, is ever changing and flexible and is b ased more on events rather than actual time. For example, Latin American and Mediterrane an countries take much more time to establish a point in a conversation and to establish a r elationship with someone. People in these cultures may carry on more than one conversati on at a time (e.g., managing multiple issues with clients during a meeting or texting your fri end and talking face-to- face with your wife) and often consider it offensive to interrupt others when they are speak ing (Novinger, 2001). Such characteristics reflect a culture’s emphasis on commitment duri ng interactions and interpersonal relationships and on acceptance of interruptions.
Monochronic and polychronic time are not just a product of dominant cultures; there can b e differences between dominant and co- cultures and also between contexts. For example, though the United States as a whole tends to be a monochronic time system culture, residents of regions such as the South and Califor nia have a looser, more polychronic time system. In contrast, those from the Northeast typi cally adhere to a more monochronic time system. In addition, business and organizational c ontexts are more likely to be monochronic, and personal relationship contexts tend more to ward polychronic time (Hall, 1990). You can determine your own temporal orientation usin g Ballard and Seibold’s (2000) scale, provided in the Self-Test feature.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
Tired of getting an average grade in all your school assignments, projects, essays, and homework? Try us today for all your academic schoolwork needs. We are among the most trusted and recognized professional writing services in the market.
We provide unique, original and plagiarism-free high quality academic, homework, assignments and essay submissions for all our clients. At our company, we capitalize on producing A+ Grades for all our clients and also ensure that you have smooth academic progress in all your school term and semesters.
High-quality academic submissions, A 100% plagiarism-free submission, Meet even the most urgent deadlines, Provide our services to you at the most competitive rates in the market, Give you free revisions until you meet your desired grades and Provide you with 24/7 customer support service via calls or live chats.