Influence of music on youth behaviors Case Assignment
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Influence of music on youth behaviors Case Assignment
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Influence of music on youth behaviors
Young people who listen to hip hop and rap may be more likely to engage in substance abuse and aggression than those who listen to other types of music, such as country and western or the top 40. According to a new study funded by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, frequent exposure to music that contains references to vio- lence and substance use is significantly associated with illicit-drug use, problems with alcohol and aggressive behaviors in young people. A positive association was also found between listeners of reggae or techno and alcohol and illicit drug use.
The study raises questions about cur- rent marketing techniques using popular rap and hip hop artists to deliver key advertising messages that promote alco- holic beverages. According to a press release issued by the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE), Meng- Jinn Chen, Ph.D., the study’s lead investi- gator and research scientist at PIRE, stat- ed that “People should be concerned about rap and hip hop being used to mar- ket alcoholic beverages, given the alco- hol, drug and aggression problems among listeners.” This is particularly true, he says, considering the popularity of hip hop and rap in young people today.
Chen and his team suggest that the messages contained in rap and hip hop might also reflect the listening prefer- ences of youngsters who are already pre- disposed to such behaviors, which rein- forces their positive attitudes towards substance use and violence.
The study was carried out using self- administered questionnaires from 1,056 students, ages 15 to 25 years (mean age 18.9; 86% younger than 21 years; 57% female; 62% non-white) attending a Cali- fornia community college. The students received a $20 incentive for participating in the study.
Respondents were asked to indicate their frequency of involvement in (a) music listening based on a list of 15 cate- gories of music; (b) alcohol use and alco- hol-use disorder measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; Babor et al., 2001); (c) illicit drug use of
marijuana and of club drugs (i.e., methyl- enedioxymethamphetine [MDMA], gamma hydroxybutyrate [GHB], keta- mine; amphetamines and methampheta- mines [e.g., crystal, ice, speed]; and hallu- cinogens (e.g., lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD], mushrooms, and phencyclidine [PCP]); (d) aggressive behaviors (e.g., engaging in a fist fight or gang fight, start- ing a fist fight or shoving match, threaten- ing someone with a gun or knife, and attacking with intent to seriously injure); (e) sensation seeking using the Zucker- man-Kahlman Personality Questionnaire (e.g., degree of preference for going to wild parties, doing “crazy” things for fun, doing scary things, watching sexy movies and acting impulsively). Demographic variables included respondents’ age, gen- der, race/ethnicity, school enrollment status, employment and parents’ level of education.
Nearly all of the respondents (94%) reported listening to music “daily or almost daily,” with rap music the most popular type of music in this sample. The investigators found that the frequency of any alcohol use was positively and signif- icantly associated with frequent listening to heavy metal, alternative music, punk, rap, R&B, reggae, rock and techno (p<0.01), but negatively and significantly associated with world music (p<0.01).
Compared with other music genres, rap music was consistently and positively associated with use of alcohol, malt- liquor, potential alcohol-use disorder, marijuana, club drugs, and aggressive behaviors after controlling for demo- graphic variables, listening to other types of music and sensation seeking.
Some genres of music were negatively associated with substance use and aggressive behavior. Listening to world
music was negatively associated with less alcohol and marijuana use, country and western music associated with less club- drug use, and rock music associated with fewer aggressive behaviors. However, the investigators caution that the negative associations were less consistent than the positive associations and that the type of music consistently related to lower risk (world music) was only “often” listened to by one tenth of the study sample. It would be premature, therefore, to suggest that listening to certain types of music is relat- ed to fewer behavior problems among youth.
The lowest levels of alcohol and mari- juana were reported by Asian-American students compared with the other ethnic groups, also taking into account other variables. Although Asian students were more likely to listen to techno music than whites and Latinos (42% compared with 24% white students and 36% Latinos), they were just as likely to listen to rap music (65% compared with 64% whites and 70% Latinos) but apparently were not as much at risk for substance use. The researchers suggest that “future studies should examine whether factors that are protective of Asian Americans regarding substance use also help lessen the con- nections between substance use and music preference.
While levels of substance use reported by black students were similar to those of students in other non-Asian racial/ethnic groups, the black students reported sig- nificantly more aggressive behavior, tak- ing into account other control variables. The investigators indicate that previous studies (e.g., Barongan et al., 1995; John- son et al., 1995; Wester et al., 1997) report that “aggression expressed in gangsta rap is violence against women, particularly black women,” although this was not measured in the present study.
One of the study limitations is that the respondents were not asked to report the amount of time they spent listening to different types of music, the degree of attention they paid to the lyrics, and to prioritize their music preferences. Because the respondents listened to more than one genre of music, it was not possible to make a clear estimate of the
The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter June 2006
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Compared with other music genres, rap music was consis- tently and positively associated with use of alcohol, malt-liquor, potential alcohol-use disorder, marijuana, club drugs, and aggressive behaviors.
The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter June 2006
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differential influences on behaviors, say the researchers. The findings are also lim- ited by the fact that the sample may not be representative of all community- college students, and that a large propor- tion of the sample was nonwhite.
“While we don’t fully understand the relationship between music preferences and behavioral outcomes,” says Meng- Jinn, “our study shows that young people may be influenced by frequent exposure to music lyrics that make positive refer- ences to substance use and violence.”
F F F Chen M-J, Miller BA, Grube JW, et al.: Music, sub- stance use, and aggression. J Stud Alcohol 2006; 67(3):373-381. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Report points to state partnerships to improve MH services for young children
Services that support young children’s healthy mental development can reduce the prevalence of developmental and behavioral disorders that have high costs and long-term consequences for health, education, child welfare, and juvenile jus- tice systems — and for children’s futures, according to a report released this month.
“Improving the Delivery of Health Care that Supports Young Children’s Healthy Mental Development: Early Accomplishments and Lessons Learned from a Five-State Consortium,” found that active partnerships with clinicians and pediatric organizations have been crucial in obtaining provider acceptance and support for improved projects. The report was prepared by the New York City- based Commonwealth Fund, a private foundation that supports health care research.
Five states, California, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Utah, are part of the ABCD II initiative, which is designed to improve the delivery of mental health services for young children. The states are implementing policies and practices to improve developmental services, in par- ticular, those that support the use of a standardized screening tool.
“The overall goal is to work with states, especially Medicaid, to develop models of financing and strategies to better support young children’s healthy mental develop-
ment,” Neva Kaye, senior program direc- tor at the National Academy for Health State Policy, told CABL. “We’re working to get primary care providers and pediatri- cians to use a screening to focus on the emotional development of young chil- dren during well-child exams.”
There’s been a lot of effort to get pedi- atricians to screen young children, said Kaye. “Once a physician has identified and screened a child, they have found insufficient resources,” said Kaye. “There isn’t much treatment [available] and a lack of clinicians who understand how to work with very young children and their families.”
The ABCD II consortium was formed in January 2004 to provide states with an opportunity to develop and test strategies for improving the care of young children at risk for or with social or emotional developmental delays, especially those in need of preventive or early intervention services. Each state is working toward the common goal of improving care, but each of their projects has different objectives and approaches (see box).
The issue of workforce capacity did emerge from the states’ efforts, said Kaye. “They found it to be an issue, especially for the very young children, ages 0 to 3, we are seeking to help,” she said. “So they have done some work to increase the number of clinicians who can work with very young children and their families.’
“Our early childhood mental health trainings have generated higher than expected interest,” said Kaye. “The ABCD II/Great Start Minnesota is viewed as the catalyst for a movement of clinicians who are devoting time and effort to increase their capacity to serve very young chil- dren and their families.”
A clinicians group was an outgrowth of such trainings offered last spring. This group is now actively pursuing further training, with the upcoming session on October 19 entitled Advanced Case Stud- ies. The clinicians group has provided guidance to the Stakeholders Advisory Committee on training structure and content to best meet the needs of the local community capacity.
The clinicians involved in Minnesota are a group of mental health profession- als who attended the first introductory training offered in Spring 2005, said Kaye. They interface with primary care pro-
viders in several settings: some are employees of one of our pilot sites, Chil- dren’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minneso- ta; others are in private practice and have also participated in the Spring CME con- ference. More joint activities are expected this coming year, said Kaye.
Objectives and approaches California Develop a service matrix that will be used to create a “roadmap to care.”
Identify policy and service delivery changes needed to improve access to infant mental health and developmen- tal services.
Illinois Increase the number of young children who receive comprehensive primary care that addresses social and emo- tional development, by: • increasing the use of formal screen-
ing tools and referrals for interven- tion services, and
improving pediatric providers’ access to materials on early childhood and perinatal mental health.
Iowa Establish minimum clinical care stan- dards for preventive and developmen- tal mental health services.
Establish links to community resources to improve access to appropriate fol- low-up care.
Minnesota Support primary care provider efforts to meet the needs of children who are at risk for delays in social or emotional development but do not meet the crite- ria for receiving services from the chil- dren’s mental health system by, among other things. • conducting CME trainings on early
childhood mental health. • increasing the likelihood that children
who qualify for care from the chil- dren’s mental health system are iden- tified and referred to that system.
Utah Increase screening for infant mental health concerns as part of EPSDT (Early and Periodic Screening, Diag- nostic, and Treatment)/ well child visits.
Increase interactions between and among Medicaid providers to ensure that providers direct children and their families to appropriate services.
Influence of music on youth behaviors Case Assignment
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