Interpreting Correlations and Use SPSS Software
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Interpreting Correlations and Use SPSS Software
- For this two-part assessment, you will respond to a question about interpreting correlations and use SPSS software to complete a data analysis and application report.
You will examine three fundamental inferential statistics, including correlation, t tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The first inferential statistic we will focus on is correlation, denoted r, which estimates the strength of a linear association between two variables. By contrast, t tests and ANOVAs will examine group differences on some quantitative dependent variable.
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:
- Competency 1: Analyze the computation, application, strengths, and limitations of various statistical tests.
- Develop a conclusion including strengths and limitations of correlation.
. Competency 2: Analyze the decision-making process of data analysis.
- Analyze the assumptions of correlation.
. Competency 3: Apply knowledge of hypothesis testing.
- Develop a research question, null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, and alpha level.
. Competency 4: Interpret the results of statistical analyses.
- Interpret the correlation output.
. Competency 5: Apply a statistical program’s procedure to data.
- Apply the appropriate SPSS procedures to check assumptions and calculate the correlations.
. Competency 6: Apply the results of statistical analyses (your own or others) to your field of interest or career.
- Develop a context for the data set, including a definition of required variables and scales of measurement.
. Competency 7: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with the expectations for members in the identified field of study.
- Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with the expectations for members in the identified field of study.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Use this online tool to track your performance and progress through your course.
Read Assessment 2 Context [DOC] for important information on the following topics:
. Interpreting correlation: Magnitude and sign.
. Assumptions of correlation.
. Hypothesis testing of correlation.
. Effect size in correlation.
. Alternative correlation coefficients.
. Proper reporting of correlations.
. r, degrees of freedom, and correlation coefficient.
. Probability values.
. Effect size.
Questions to Consider
As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.
. Correlation versus causation:
- If correlation does not imply causation, what does it imply?
- Are there ever any circumstances when a correlation can be interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between two variables?
- If yes, what circumstances?
. Application of correlation:
- Is there a research question from your professional life or career specialization that can be addressed by a correlation?
- Why would a correlation be the appropriate analysis for this research question?
- What are the variables and their scale of measurement?
- What is the expected outcome (positive, negative, no relationship)?
Because this is a psychology course, you need to format this assessment according to APA guidelines. Additional resources about APA can be found in the Research Resources in the courseroom navigation menu. Use the resources to guide your work.
. American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
- This resource is available from the Capella University Bookstore .
The following resources are required to complete the assessment.
Data Set Instructions
These are the same instructions provided in Assessment 1.
Assessment Template and Output Instructions
- Use this template to complete your assessment.
- Use this document for instructions on completing the DAA template.
- This document provides instructions for extracting output from SPSS. You will insert your output into the assessment answer template as indicated.
The following statistical analysis software is required to complete your assessments in this course:
. IBM SPSS Statistics Standard or Premium GradPack (recent version for Windows or Mac).
- As a Capella learner, you have access to the more robust IBM SPSS Statistics Premium GradPack arranged at an academic discount through a contracted vendor.
- Please refer to the Statistical Software page on Campus for general information on SPSS software, including the most recent version made available to Capella learners.
The resources provided here are optional and support the assessment. They provide helpful information about the topics. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The XX-FP7864 – Quantitative Design and Analysis Library Guide can help direct your research, and the Supplemental Resources and Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your courseroom, provide additional resources to help support you.
Statistics Concepts and Terminology
- Read this resource for information about the statistical terminology and concepts needed to complete this assessment.
SPSS Software Procedures
- This course file provides an illustrated, step-by-step guide to creating correlation statistics in SPSS.
. In your IBM SPSS Statistics Step by Step library e-book:
- Chapter 10, “Bivariate Correlation.”
. StatSoft, Inc. (2013). Electronic statistics textbook . Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. Retrieved from http://www.statsoft.com/textbook
- Basic Statistics.
- This section contains information on correlations.
- Skillsoft. (n.d.). Basics of correlation, regression, and hypothesis testing for six sigma [Video] .
. ?Navigate to this course, click the Table of Contents, and open the heading titled Using Correlation Analysis in Six Sigma. There are five videos adding up to 25 minutes that you should watch under this heading.
- Scott, S. (n.d.). Correlation and regression [Video] . Skillsoft.
These programs have opted to provide program-specific content designed to help you better understand how the subject matter is incorporated into your particular field of study.
School of Psychology Learners
Note: For the first article, focus on interpreting Table 1.
- Jia, Y., Konold, T. R., & Cornell, D. (2015). Authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates . School Psychology Quarterly, 31(2), 289–303.
- Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature . Psychological Science, 12(5), 353–359.
School of Education Learners
- Walk, M. J., & Rupp, A. A. (2010). Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient . In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 1023–1026). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Additional Resources for Further Exploration
- Khan Academy . (2013). Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org
. This website offers resources covering a range of subjects, including statistics.
- Assessment Instructions
Read Assessment 2 Context (linked in the Resources) to learn about the concepts used in this assessment. This assessment contains two parts. Follow the instructions provided for each part. Submit both parts of your assessment as Word documents.
Part 1: Interpreting Correlations
A meta-analysis (Anderson & Bushman, 2001) reported that the average correlation between time spent playing video games (X) and engaging in aggressive behavior (Y) in a set of 21 well-controlled experimental studies was r+ = .19. This correlation was judged to be statistically significant. In your own words, what can you say about the nature of the relationship? Write a one-page response to this question.
Part 2: Correlations
You will use the following resources for this assessment. They are linked in the Resources.
- Complete this part of the assessment using the DAA Template.
- Read the SPSS Data Analysis Report Guidelines for a more complete understanding of the DAA Template and how to format and organize your assessment.
- Refer to IBM SPSS Step-By-Step Instructions: Correlations for additional information on using SPSS for this assessment.
- If necessary, review the Copy/Export Output Instructions to refresh your memory on how to perform these tasks. As with your previous two assessments, your submission should be narrative with supporting statistical output (table and graphs) integrated into the narrative in the appropriate place (not all at the end of the document).
You will analyze the following variables in the grades.sav data set:
Step 1: Write Section 1 of the DAA
Provide a context of the grades.sav data set. Include a definition of the specified variables and corresponding scales of measurement. Indicate the type of correlation for each X, Y pair (for example, Pearson’s r, Spearman’s r, point-biserial r, et cetera). Specify the sample size of the data set.
Step 2: Write Section 2 of the DAA
Test the assumptions of correlation for gpa and final. Paste the SPSS histogram output for each variable and discuss your visual interpretations. Paste SPSS descriptives output showing skewness and kurtosis values and interpret them. Paste SPSS scatter plot output with gpa set to the horizontal axis and final set to the vertical axis. Conduct a visual inspection of the scatter plot to analyze other assumptions of correlation. Summarize whether or not the assumptions of correlation are met.
Step 3: Write Section 3 of the DAA
Specify a research question related to gpa and final. Articulate the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. Specify your alpha level.
Step 4: Write Section 4 of the DAA
Paste the SPSS output of the intercorrelation matrix for all specified variables.
- First, report the lowest magnitude correlation in the intercorrelation matrix, including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, p value, and effect size. Interpret the effect size. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.
- Second, report the highest magnitude correlation in the intercorrelation matrix, including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, p value, and effect size. Interpret the effect size. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.
- Third, report the correlation between gpa and final, including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, p value, and effect size. Interpret the effect size. Analyze the correlation in terms of the null hypothesis.
Step 5: Write Section 5 of the DAA
Discuss the implications of this correlation as it relates to the research question. Conclude with an analysis of the strengths and limitations of correlational analysis.
Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353–359.
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