PS380 Forensic Psychology and Expert Witness Essay
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PS380 Forensic Psychology and Expert Witness Essay
According to Bartol & Bartol (2017), forensic psychology is defined as a field that combines two disciplines; the legal system, and psychology. Individuals in this field are required to use their psychological knowledge and skills and apply them to the justice system.
Forensic psychology is not performed by forensic psychologists only but rather involves any psychologist whose skills, experience, and expertise are used to inform r guide the court. A psychologist becomes an expert witness when they are required to perform a diagnosis and an assessment on an individual crucial to a case and offer their professional opinion.
The presentation will discuss how clinical psychologists, school psychologists, child psychologists, forensic psychologists, and neuropsychologists can be appointed as an expert witness.
A forensic psychologist facilitates the legal processes by offering psychology knowledge and opinion as requested by the court in the legal system.
Forensic psychology was created because of the legal system’s need to determine why specific defendants behave the way they do. Forensic psychologist’s main duty is to apply psychology to a forensic setting states Blau, (1998).
forensic psychologist training
To become a forensic psychologist, one must first earn a bachelor’s degree from accredited institutions. There are two options for undergraduate level; major in psychology with criminology, criminal justice, or prelaw minor; and major in any of the three law subjects with a minor in psychology.
However, the first alternative is the most recommended because some graduate programs only accept that option. Next, one should enroll in a master’s degree in forensic psychology or PsyD/Ph.D. in psychology that majors in forensic psychology.
A law degree is recommended but not necessary, and then pursue a doctorate in psychology (PsyD/Ph.D. will suffice). the last steps to be a forensic psychologist are to obtain licensure and certification by the board (Bartol, & Bartol, 2017).
forensic psychologist cases
A psychologist in forensic will act as an expert witness to explain complex psychology concepts to the jury. The attorney will consult these specialists in cases where a defendant’s or witness’s state of mind needs to be assessed to determine if they will stand trial or testify.
The specialist will evaluate disputing parties to determine the reliability of the information. Their expertise will be needed when a prisoner is about to be released from jail, where the practitioner is required to prepare the inmate for the outside world.
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forensic psychologist example
A forensic psychologist will become an expert witness when the court has doubts on the information testified by an eyewitness. The specialist will be required to assess the witness and the information they have offered the court and determine whether it is accurate. The psychologist will then offer the attorney and jury a professional opinion on the reliability and accuracy of the information.
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According to Gudjonsson & Haward, (2016), clinical psychology is the discipline that is concerned with the emotional and mental health of people. Professionals in this field use their honed communication and analytical skills to assist the population in improving its quality of life.
These experts are concerned with understanding the emotional, mental, and behavioral issues affecting the population, including children, adults, and the elderly.
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clinical psychologist training
The first step to becoming a clinical psychologist is to enroll in a bachelor’s degree in psychology or sociology, pre-med, or anthropology because there is no undergraduate degree in clinical psychology. The next step is to enroll in a master’s degree in clinical psychology or combine programs that will result in doctorate rather than completing the mater’s and then enrolling in the doctorate.
But this option of combining programs is not available for those who did not graduate with a degree in psychology. In the doctorate stage, the student can pursue PsyD/Ph.D. the latter focusses on research while the former focuses on a clinical setting. Students are required to complete two years of internship under the instructions of a licensed clinal psychologist. The last step is to get licensure to form the board (Neal & Brodsky, 2016).
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Clinical psychologist cases
Clinical psychologists’ expertise will be needed in case that involve addictions. This area covers a wide range of addictions, including substance use and abuse, as well as addictive behaviors. Cases involving domestic violence also require the expertise of clinical psychologists.
These professionals may be called upon in a divorce to determine the reliability of evidence or present and explain evidence from their diagnosis and assessment of the victim or defendant. Their expertise will be needed in cases involving children with traumatic experiences or those who show abnormal behavior, and they will be required to advise the jury and the attorney on the issue (Gudjonsson, & Haward, 2016).
clinical psychologist example
A clinical psychologist will be an expert witness in the legal system when the court wants to challenge an insanity defense. The professional will be required to conduct a diagnosis and assess the defendant to determine if they have any mental illness.
The professional will then determine the relationship between the defendant’s mental status when they allegedly committed the offense and their responsibility for the offense with which they are charged (Bartol, & Bartol, 2017).
School psychologists collaborate with teachers, students, and parents to build a conducive learning experience states Tadei et al. (2016). These psychologists utilize their skills and knowledge to help students with behavioral issues and foster the emotional stability of students, which improves the learning environment. These professionals identify the needs of student which help teachers to create an inclusive and safe classroom.
school psychologist training
The educational requirements to become a school psychologist include a relevant bachelor’s degree.one must have attained either a post-master’s degree in education or a degree in psychology to be accepted for the school psychologist program. An education specialist is viable for the school psychologist program.
Those with a bachelor’s degree can start the program as they work towards achieving the Ed.S. the student also has the chance to further his Ed.S to an Ed.D or Ph.D. Thus, education specialist is recommended for those who want to pursue school psychology in the future.
The student must undergo the National Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) certification, which requires 1200 internship hours on top of the previously mentioned requirements. Of the 1200 hours, 600 hours must be achieved in a school setting. Lastly, the student will apply for licensure, and the qualifications in this stage mirror those of the NCSP (Gudjonsson, & Haward, 2016).
school psychologist cases
School psychologists play a significant role in the development of children. If they feel that a child is not receiving the needed learning environment, they will be obligated to intervene. These professionals may be called upon to offer their skills and knowledge in cases that involve bullying.
Their expertise will also be need when the school is not facilitating an all-inclusive classroom when the student has a learning disability. In case a student is experiencing family trauma, the school psychologists will be involved. They will work with the legal system, teachers, parents, and the student to improve the learning environment (Neal, & Brodsky, 2016).
school psychologist example
A school psychologist will be an expert witness in court when a child is not receiving equal opportunities in school. The psychologists will be required to show psychological evidence that the school is not offering an inclusive learning environment.
The professional will show results of assessments done to the particular student for some time, and provide evidence of the adverse effects caused by this discrimination. The psychologist will also be required to prepare the child to give their testimony in court.
According to Tadei et al. (2016), neuropsychologists study the correlation between human behavior and the brain systems and functions. Neuropsychology combines two disciplines; psychology that is concerned with the thought process and behavioral well-being and neurology that is concerned with the physical health of the central nervous system and the human brain. Due to the nature of this profession, most experts work in a medical setting and research.
The educational needs for a neuropsychologist begin with earning a bachelor’s degree in relevant programs from accredited institutions. For one to be accepted in a mater’s degree in neuropsychology, they must graduate with a bachelor’s in psychology, pre-medicine, biology, neuroscience, or related field.
The next step is to earn a master’s degree in neuropsychology, but this is only necessary if one needs specialized knowledge. Most prospects with a bachelor’s degree will be accepted to the doctorate program. Specialized clinical neuropsychology study begins at the doctorate level.
Students have the option to study either Ph.D. or Psy.D. in clinical psychology; however, this should be followed through with a postdoctoral certificate program. The next step is acquiring licensure after practical experience and passing the Professional Practice of Psychology examination. Certification is only achieved after one has had postdoctoral experience states Neal & Brodsky, (2016).
Neuropsychologist’s expertise will be called upon in cases that involve defendants, victims, or witnesses with brain injuries to determine the reliability of their testimonies or determine if they are fit to stand trial.
Neuropsychologists will also be called upon when the case involves neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Neuropsychologists engage in extensive researches on these illnesses, and thus their professional opinions are highly regarded in courts (Tadei et al. 2016).
A neuropsychologist will become an expert witness when a plaintiff claims that physical head trauma resulted in psychological illness. The neuropsychologist will perform a diagnosis of the brain to determine the extent of the physical damage.
The specialist will then examine the plaintiff’s nervous system and how the physical trauma is affecting the thought process. The specialist will then give a professional opinion on the extent to which the psychological illness is attributed to bodily injury.
According to Tadei et al. (2016), child psychologists diagnose, assess, and treat behavioral, developmental, and emotional disorders in children. These professionals are more focused on the clinical setting rather than research. Thus, they work more closely with their patients to develop treatments and monitor their progress.
child psychologist training
There are no undergraduate degrees in child psychology, and thus a prospect should consider baccalaureate degrees such as child development, general psychology, social sciences, and psychology. Depending on the institution and state, a graduate is required to undertake a master’s degree, while others institute it is included in the doctorate.
This option is presented in the application of an undergraduate. Next, the student is required to complete a practicum, which is supervised and overseen by the American Phycological Association. The prospect then sits for an examination for professional practice in psychology. The candidate is then required to take a postdoctoral fellowship in a field related to child psychology (Tadei et al. 2016).
child psychologist cases
Child psychologists’ services are needed in cases that involve children who have experienced trauma such as the death of a parent or divorce.
These professional’s expertise is required when there is a case of a child whose mental condition is being affected by a stressful home environment states Bartol, & Bartol, (2017). The experts are required to diagnose and asses the child’s psychological status and offer a professional opinion to the jury.
child psychologist example
In a divorce case, a child psychologist will use their knowledge and skills to offer the court a professional opinion on the psychological factors that will impact the best interests of the child.
The specialist will also be required to testify on the dispute of child custody to help the court determine the decision that will lead to the well-being of the child. The child psychologist will also determine the consequences of the outcome will have on the family (Blau, 1998).
Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M. (2017). Introduction to forensic psychology: Research and application. Sage Publications.
Neal, T., & Brodsky, S. L. (2016). Forensic psychologists’ perceptions of bias and potential correction strategies in forensic mental health evaluations. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 22(1), 58.
Blau, T. H. (1998). The psychologist as an expert witness. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Tadei, A., Finnilä, K., Reite, A., Antfolk, J., & Santtila, P. (2016). Judges’ capacity to evaluate psychological and psychiatric expert testimony. Nordic Psychology, 68(3), 204-217.
Gudjonsson, G. H., & Haward, L. R. (2016). Forensic psychology: A guide to practice. Routledge.
PS380 Forensic Psychology and Expert Witness Essay
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. 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The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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