Racial Differences in Intelligence Case Assignment
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Racial Differences in Intelligence Case Assignment
After carefully reading the article you chose in this unit’s second study, prepare a paper about the controversy that began when Arthur Jensen published an article about racial differences in intelligence. Present both sides of the argument, then evaluate which side has the stronger position. Find at least one other scholarly article from the Capella University Library to support your argument. Make sure to reference all articles and other resources you use in APA (6th edition) format.
Arthur Robert Jensen, Professor Emeritus of educational psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, is known for his work on how and why individuals differ, behaviorally, from one another. In the nature-versus-nurture debate, Jensen is a major proponent of the hereditarian position, which concludes genetics play a significant role in behavioral traits and intelligence.
Jensen’s most controversial work was published in 1969 in the Harvard Educational Review. It was titled How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? Among other things, Jensen (Indiana University, 2007) concluded that “racial differences in average IQ scores are not due to any ‘culture unfairness’ intrinsic to the tests.” The work ignited a firestorm of controversy and became one of the most contentious papers in the history of intelligence research.
Locate at least two articles through the Capella Library databases and other electronic resources about the controversy surrounding intelligence and race. Choose one article that supports the racial difference position and one that opposes it. Each article you reference should have the proper citations. Resources and citations should be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting. You will use this research to complete the Unit 4 assignment.
Indiana University. (2007). Human Intelligence: Arthur Jensen. Retrieved from http://www.intelltheory.com/jensen.shtml
They must, therefore, find a way of satisfying objectives of economic competitiveness and of environmental protection at the same time. In the former approach, environmental questions are seen as a restriction, introduced by the legislator, on the firm’s main objective (economic competitiveness), while, in the latter, pressure from society
is what forces the firm to accept its responsibility in terms of environmental deterioration. In both cases, the company’s environmental policy is guided both by legal sanctions (fines and civil or penal responsibility) and by social sanctions (protests, loss of reputation and image). The peculiarity of environmental strategy lies in the fact that
it combines a social dimension with a technical dimension. The relevance of the social dimension is that the environment is a public good and all the internal and external stakeholders have some form of interest in it, though not necessarily coinciding (Henriques and Sadorsky, 1999). Technical and economic aspects are also highly
relevant, since environmental protection challenges the way corporations handle material resources and produce goods and services. It has a direct effect on production processes and product development. The role of environmental decisions in the operations area must be analyzed within the general context of the firm’s environmental
strategy (Skinner, 1969; Wheelwright, 1984; Vickery et al., 1993). As noted above, the importance of involving operations management in environmental issues is explained by the fact that it is precisely in this function where the majority of the firm’s environmental impacts arise (Gupta, 1995). The effects of production processes on the
environment affect both the production of pollutants and the consumption of natural resources, which is why the business and academic communities point out that the implication of the operations sub-system in any environmental strategy is absolutely necessary (Azzone and Bertele, 1994). Furthermore, the implication of other
functional areas to fully exploit a competitive advantage based on environmental issues, such as marketing, is subject to the effective improvement in the environmental impact of operations. For example, the firm must never use environmental arguments in its advertising campaigns until it has reduced the environmental impact of its
products and processes; otherwise, the marketing program will be neither credible nor sustainable (Coddington, 1993). This fact has given rise to a growing quantity of studies analysing the questions related to environmental management from the point of view of operations management. In Table I we have included some of the
perspectives adopted and various research works that fit into each perspective. As Table I shows, since 1993 environmental issues have burst onto the scene in the main aspects of operations management, such as operations strategy, product selection and design, quality management, technology, or supplies. The perspectives from
which environmental issues are studied in operations management have been placed in separate sections in order to illustrate the wide range of ways in which the subject can be approached. This, in turn, reflects the inter-disciplinary nature and variety of approaches of operations management itself, as well as its common denominator,
aimed at solving problems in product manufacture and services Jones and Lockwood, 1998). However, the interrelation existing among the main operations decisions also means that they can be considered as a whole. For example, design for the environment calls for the simultaneous consideration of aspects such as environmental
technologies, ecological purchasing and supply strategy. In the same way, some of the perspectives highlighted here, such as remanufacturing, represent a new way of conceiving the whole production subsystem, according to which environmental issues influence the major decisions of the operations function: product design, variations
in the processes, or in the planning of production, capacity, supply and inventories.
07 May 2014 Page 3 of 17 ProQuest
Almost all the papers included in Table I highlight the fact that the operations function plays a major role in reducing the organisation’s impact on the natural environment. Therefore, environmental impact reduction should be considered, at least partially, as an issue which is the responsibility of operations management. The importance of
environmental matters in operations management is synthesised in Angell and Klassen’s (1999) literature review and research agenda. They revise some of the possible connections and suggest over 30 propositions between environmental protection and the main structural and infrastructural decisions of the operations function:
facilities, process technology, capacity, vertical integration, suppliers, new products, workforce, quality management, and planning and control systems. Other incipient research lines analyse the connection between the operations area performance and the firm’s environmental performance (Klassen and Whybark, 1999b; Hanna et al,
2000), or study the environmental problem in service operations management (Foster et al., 2000). Operations management can approach environmental sustainability via the definition of a new operations objective: environmental performance (Angell, 1993). Revising and updating operations objectives Operations competitive priorities
and operations objectives In a seminal article about manufacturing strategy, Skinner (1969) uses the concept of manufacturing tasks to connect corporate strategy with that of operations. The manufacturing task list includes, among others, the production variables of cost, delivery, lead time, quality and reliability. Initially, these
manufacturing tasks were considered as representative of exclusive objectives that could be chosen to support the firm’s general strategy (Skinner, 1969). The need to priorise these options in order to design the operations system justified a change in terminology, so that the manufacturing tasks or competitive dimensions were also
known as “competitive priorities”. The operations competitive priorities “indicate areas in which manufacturing must focus if it is to provide a competitive edge to the company” (Garvin, 1993, p. 87). Wheelwright (1984) named four basic competitive priorities which, to a great extent, have influenced the terminology and the content
assigned to operations objectives: cost, quality, dependability and flexibility. The degree to which these objectives are achieved would reflect the performance of the organisation’s operations area. The relationships between the various operations objectives, and their content have changed over the years. In the first case, the trade-off
model of the competitive priorities has been challenged. There is some evidence that supports those improvements in the operations performance areas may be mutually supportive if they are
Racial Differences in Intelligence Case Assignment
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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