Relationship Between Correlations and Predictions Case Assignment
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Relationship Between Correlations and Predictions Case Assignment
- Describe correlations and regression analyses.
- Analyze the relationship between correlations and predictions.
Introduction In contrast to Week Three where statistical tests focusing on differences were introduced, in Week Four, you will explore relationships in statistical tests. Correlations and linear regression techniques will be utilized and results will be evaluated and interpreted. The written assignments in Weeks One, Two, and Three prepared you for analyzing and evaluating research articles. In the written assignment this week, you will focus less on actual research and more on the report writing process. If you work in a social/behavioral sciences field, you will likely be asked to conduct research (i.e., conduct an experiment or study) and create a report based on your findings. Generally speaking, people who investigate a scientific hypothesis have a responsibility to the scientific community to share those results. This is particularly true when that investigation adds to/or contradicts previous research. The research report outlines each step that was done during the research and summarizes the results and conclusions. The goal is to give the reader enough information so that the methods and results can be accurately evaluated, and the conclusions can be replicated if necessary. Although the research report this week will be based on hypothetical and/or fictitious data, the process of creating a correctly formatted research report with all the necessary components will provide you with important skills as you progress through your degree and as you continue into the world of the social/behavioral sciences.
Required Resources Required Text
Read from the course text, Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences :
- Chapter 8: Correlation
- Chapter 9: Linear Regression
Recommended Resources Articles
- Kirwan, J., Lounsbury, J., Gibson, L. (2010). Self-direction in learning and personality: The Big Five and narrow personality traits in relation to learner self-direction. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 7(2), 21-34. Retrieved from http://sdlglobal.com/IJSDL/IJSDL7.2-2010.pdf#page=25
- This is an article about personality, self-directed learning, and scale development and the major traits that may affect them. These include: agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. It incorporates correlation and regression procedures with tables that display the statistical results.
- Stark, P.B. (2013). Chapter 9: Regression. Retrieved from http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~stark/SticiGui/Text/regression.htm
- This website contains several video lectures and examples of how regression is used.
- Trochim, W. M. (2006). Correlation. In Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statcorr.php
- This website contains many tutorials and tools for statistical analyses and methods used in the social sciences. This particular page is a detailed description, with examples and graphs, to help understand correlation statistics.
- VassarStats: Website for Statistical Computation. (http://vassarstats.net)
- This website includes tools to calculate many of the statistical tests we cover in this course including t-tests, ANOVA, correlation, and regression. Each calculator includes a tutorial and/or walkthrough.
- Web Center for Social Research Methods. (http://socialresearchmethods.net)
- This website includes links to numerous tools and tutorials relating to statistical concepts, calculations, and scale development.
Correlation In this post, you will be challenged to look at how statistical tests, such as correlation are commonly used and the possible limitations of such analyses. In addition, you will need to identify the appropriate application of course-specified statistical tests, examine assumptions and limitations of course specified statistical tests, and communicate in writing critiques of statistical tests. Much has been written about the relationship between students’ SAT test scores and their family’s income. Generally speaking, there is a strong positive correlation between income and SAT scores. Consider and discuss the following questions as you respond:
- What does this correlation tell you?
- Is this correlation evidence that having a high family income causes one to have high SAT scores?
- Is this correlation evidence that high SAT scores are a cause of higher income? Or, does this tell you something else? Explain your answer.
- Explain why correlation alone is rarely sufficient to demonstrate cause.
- 1 –Correlation– Looking at the Pearson Correlation, positive and negative correlations and the relationship between correlation and causation.
- In a separate area with references, if applicable, answer these questions:
- How strong do you feel your explanations are?
- What might you do to strengthen their arguments?
When grading the Correlation paper I will be looking for your answer to contain:
Week 4 Paper 1 Board Rubric Earned Weight Content Criteria 0.5 Student identifies and defines what the concept of what a Pearson correlation means. Student applied concept of correlation to income and SAT Scores to show working knowledge of material. 0.5 Student identifies type of data used in correlation. 0.5 Student explores why correlation does not equal causation 0.5 The student responds to at least two classmates’ initial posts by Day 7. 1 Format 2 Student uses correct spelling, grammar and sentence structure. Total 5
So far we have looked at descriptive statistics which show how data looks and inferential statistics which means you are looking to draw a conclusion beyond what the immediate data present can tell you. This week we will look at the relationship between statistical tests and why they are used to look at similarities within data.
Correlation is when we look at the relationship between two items (Tanner, 2011). When you eat spicy food you may notice that you have heartburn. This means that there could be correlation between spicy food and digestion issues. You may notice that when the moon is full dogs bark in your neighborhood which means there may be a correlation between the full moon and dogs barking. To find out if there is a relationship between the variables of spicy food and digestion issues or dogs barking and the full moon you can collect and analyze the data. To determine the strength of these relationships (as opposed to testing the differences present such as with the z-test or t-test) you will want to test for a hypothesis of association. When the statistics are significant this means that there is a relationship within the variables being tested.
A correlation in the hypothesis of association, meaning that there is a relationship between the variables being studied, is judged by a -1.0 or a +1.0. The closer to 1.0 that a correlation is the more perfect the correlation is in its relationship. A positive correlation (closer to +1.0) means that as variable A increases so does variable B and as variable A decreases so does variable B. A negative correlation (closer to -1.0) means that as variable A increases variable B decreases (Lanthier, 2002). When testing the hypothesis of a correlation the null hypothesis will mean that there is no relationship between the variables (the opposite of the null hypothesis of the t-test and ANOVA in which the null hypothesis states that there is no change between variables). The alternative hypothesis (that you take if the null hypothesis is not true) is that there is a statistically significant correlation between the two variables (Tanner, 2011).
In order to test correlation you can use different correlations such as the Pearson correlation or the Spearman Rho. With the Pearson correlation you are using interval or ratio data, while with the Spearman Rho you are using data from an ordinal scale (Tanner, 2011). An example of a ordinal scale is a Likert Scale used in research to rank preference on a scale of 1 to 5.
It is also important to recognize that correlation, a statistical significance in the relationship within groups, does not necessarily mean that one variable causes another variable (Tanner, 2011). For example let’s say that you have three foods, a pepper and onion pizza, jalapeno poppers, and an onion petal with a zesty dipping sauce. You notice after all three meals that you do not feel good. You know there is a correlation between eating these foods; however do you know there is causation with the spiciness of the foods? What if you do not know you are lactose intolerant and the dairy in these foods is the culprit? This means there is still a correlation between your illness and these foods however other spicy foods without dairy will not have the same effect on you. Therefore the food has two variables, dairy and spice, and the variable of spicy food is not a cause.
When looking at regression we use the relationship between variables (such as a statistically significant correlation) to make a prediction that variable A will cause an effect on variable B. This type of analysis can be seen in the predictions of our economy. If unemployment is going up what does that mean for the consumer market? It unemployment is going down, does this mean that consumer spending will go up? It is through the use of correlations that we are able to make a prediction through the use of regression through predictor and criterion variables (Tanner, 2011).
Additional Resources (web links, videos, and articles):
Please Watch the Video: Tests of Difference
Lanthier, E. (2002). Correlation. Retrieved from http://www.nvcc.edu/home/elanthier/methods/correlation.htm
Tanner, D. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral & social sciences. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Assignment To complete the following assignment, go to this week’s Assignment link in the left navigation.
Research Report Write a research report based on a hypothetical research study. Conducting research and writing a report is common practice for many students and practitioners in any of the behavioral sciences fields.
A research report, which is based on scientific method, is typically composed of the different sections listed below:
- Introduction: The introduction states a specific hypothesis and how that hypothesis was derived by connecting it to previous research.
- Methods: The methods section describes the details of how the hypothesis was tested and clarifies why the study was conducted in that particular way.
- Results: The results section is where the raw uninterpreted data is presented.
- Discussion: The discussion section is where an argument is presented on whether or not the data supports the hypothesis, the possible implications and limitations of the study, as well as possible future directions for this type of research.
Together, these sections should tell the reader what was done, how it was done, and what was learned through the research. You will create a research report based on a hypothetical problem, sample, results, and literature review. Organize your data by creating meaningful sections within your report. Make sure that you:
- Apply key concepts of inferential hypothesis tests.
- Interpret the research findings of the study.
- Examine the assumptions and limitations of inferential tests.
- Develop a practical application of the research principles covered in this course.
Focus of the Research Report To begin, create a hypothetical research study (you do not have to carry out the study; you will just have to describe it) that is based on the three pieces of information listed below. Once you have your hypothetical study created, write a three- to four-page research report (excluding title and reference pages) that outlines the study. You are encouraged to be creative with your research study, but be sure to follow the format outlined below and adhere to APA formatting as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your hypothetical research study should be based on the following information:
- Recent research has indicated that eating chocolate can improve memory. Jones and Wilson (2011) found that eating chocolate two hours before taking math tests improved scores significantly. Wong, Hideki, Anderson, and Skaarsgard (2009) found that women are better than men on memory tests after eating chocolate.
- There were 50 men and 50 women who were randomly selected from a larger population.
- A t-test was conducted to compare men and women’s performance on an assessment after eating chocolate. The results showed an independent t-test value of t .05(99) = 3.43; p < .05
Your research study must contain the following:
- Title Page
- Title of your report
- Your name
- The course
- Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present the purpose of the paper and the research question and hypothesis.
- Discuss how this study is related to other research on the topic.
- Elaborate on the information from the references you were given. State how they relate to your hypothesis.
- Your introduction must:
- Consist of a paragraph explaining what you are studying and why. Use previously cited research to explain your expectations and discuss how those expectations led to your hypothesis.
- State a clear and testable hypothesis and whether it is one-tailed or two-tailed.
- Make sure it is understandable to someone who has not read the rest of your pape yet.State the null hypothesis.
- Include a justification of the direction of your hypothesis. In other words, explain why you chose the direction of your hypothesis if it is one-tailed (e.g., previous research suggests that people with big feet are more likely to score higher on math tests; therefore the hypothesis is one-tailed) or if it is two-tailed (e.g., previous research is not clear on which group will perform better; therefore, the hypothesis is two-tailed).
- Describe why this study is important.
- Design: State the experimental design of your study, the independent and dependent variables, and what the task was (e.g., what you had the participants do).
- Participants: Identify and describe your sample, how the participants were selected to be in the study, and why you chose them. Provide details for how each individual was assigned to each group.
- Procedure: Describe the precise procedure you used to conduct this research (i.e., exactly what you did). It should be clear enough that anyone could replicate your study. This is the subsection where you tell the reader how you collected the data.
- Data Analysis: Describe the statistical procedure used in the study to analyze the data.
- Results.In this section, you will describe the statistical results:
- State the statistical tests that were used.
- Justify the choice of test.
- State the observed value and significance level and whether the test was one or two tailed.
- State your conclusion in terms of the hypothesis.
- Did you accept or reject the null hypothesis?
- Discussion: Discuss your results as they relate to your hypothesis.
- Did you accept the hypothesis or reject it?
- Compare your results to the previous studies mentioned in the introduction. Are your results similar or different? Discuss why.
- Tell the readers what your findings mean. Why did you get the results you did?
- Identify limitations to your study.
- Suggest ways your study could be improved.
- Suggest ideas for future research, not just a continuation of your study, but research that is similar to this study. Perhaps one of the variables could be changed or a different sample could be investigated.
- Finish with a concluding paragraph that is a statement of your findings and the key points of the discussion.
- Conclusion:Write a paragraph detailing your experience with writing a research report. Discuss how easy/difficult it was to write a false report that reads like real results, and how this experience might affect you review research in the future. Do you think this experience will provide you with a useful skill in your potential career?
- References:You will create a minimum of three fictitious references in the following format based on the information you have created in the preceding sections of the report:
- Author, A., & Author, B. (Publication year). Title of the article. Journal Name, volume number(issue number), page numbers.
- Example: Jones, A., & Williams, B. (2013). Why monkeys are good pets. Journal of Silly Science, 23(4), pp. 221-222.
Writing the Research Report The Assignment:
- Must be three to four double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
- Must include a title page with the following:
- Title of paper
- Student’s name
- Course name and number
- Instructor’s name
- Date submitted
- Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
- Must include the sections with the appropriate headings and content listed above.
- Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style
Relationship Between Correlations and Predictions Case Assignment
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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