simulation of human karyotyping using digital images
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Karyotyping Lab (5 pts.)
The Biology Project through The University of Arizona has an interactive exercise on human karyotyping. The first page you will encounter includes the following material (some additional details for YOUR assignment are different than those listed on the website and are highlighted in red at the bottom of this page).
This exercise is a simulation of human karyotyping using digital images of chromosomes from actual human genetic studies. You will be arranging chromosomes (by clicking and dragging) into a completed karyotype (an organized display – or image- of the chromosomes of one cell of the organism) and interpreting your findings just as if you were working in a genetic analysis program at a hospital or clinic. Karyotype analyses are performed over 400,000 times per year in the U.S. and Canada. Imagine that you were performing these analyses for real people, and that your conclusions would drastically affect their lives.
In the cell during the cellular division process of mitosis, the 23 pairs (a total of 46 individuals) of human chromosomes condense and are visible with a light microscope. A karyotype analysis usually involves blocking (halting, slowing cell division) cells in mitosis and staining the condensed chromosomes with a dye called Giemsa. Giemsa stain is commonly used in molecular/microbiological fields to stain many things, but in this application, Giemsa stains regions of chromosomes that are rich in the DNA nitrogenous base pairs Adenine (A) and Thymine (T) producing a dark colored stripe, called a G-band. A common misconception is that G-bands represent single genes, but in fact the thinnest G-bands contain over 1,000,000 (one million) base pairs and potentially hundreds of genes, in one tiny little G-band. The size of one small G-band is equivalent to the entire genetic information for one bacterium (for example, ONE E. coli in the gut).
The analysis involves comparing chromosomes for their length, the placement of centromeres (areas where the two chromatids are joined), and the location and sizes of G-bands. The assignment involves electronically completing the karyotype for 3 individuals and look for abnormalities that could explain the physical characteristics (called the phenotype) of the individual.
Evaluate 3 patients’ case histories by:
1. Completing the karyotypes for each of the 3 patients, as instructed online at the link above.
2. Diagnose any missing or extra chromosomes in each individual’s genetic profile as instructed online and complete the questions on the website for each patient.
3. After completing questions 1 and 2, you will submit 1 written response per patient (3 responses total for this portion)
* Each minimum ½ page in length, typed single spaced detailing what you learned about each patient.
4. Conduct research from 3 reputable web sites that cover some interesting aspect of human genetics and karyotyping (do not use Wikipedia) and submit 1 written response about the information you discover
* 1 page in length total, single spaced
* Be very careful to use your own words. Plagiarism will result in a zero on the assignment.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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