The Sustainability Research Paper Essay
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The Sustainability Research Paper Essay
Researchers create water-degradable plastic combining starch and cellulose 23 March 2020
Fig. 1. Marine biodegradable plastic preparation from starch and cellulose. Credit: Osaka University
The main cause of marine debris accumulation is the dumping of plastic waste into the oceans, as most plastic does not degrade when left in the environment. Marine biodegradable plastics have previously been developed in Japan, with PHBH (by Kaneka Corporation) and PBS (by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation) currently available.
However, these are both categorized as aliphatic polyesters and are of poor quality compared to conventional plastics such as polyethylene and polypropylene, while being producible only in low yields (approximately tens of thousands of tons per year compared to an annual global production of 300 million tons for conventional plastics) and at more than twice the cost of that of conventional plastics, all of which are factors that have limited their use.
Thus, there has been a strong demand for the development of a low-cost and mass- producible marine biodegradable plastic to tackle the growing problem of marine debris.
A group of researchers led by Associate Professor Taka-Aki Asoh and Professor Hiroshi Uyama of the Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, has, in collaboration with Nihon Shokuhin Kako Co., combined the ubiquitous biomasses starch and cellulose to develop a marine biodegradable plastic.
Starch is the main component of the carbohydrates found in corn, tubers, and roots such as potatoes; cellulose is the main component of plants and commonly known as cotton fiber. Using their unique technology, the researchers improved the water resistance of starch significantly, and the resultant composite sheet material demonstrated excellent water resistance and high strength in addition to its high levels of biodegradability in seawater.
Associate Professor Asoh says, “Because these materials are cheap, and the manufacturing process is simple, we can expect that the developed material will be put to practical use soon. We have great expectations that our material will help solve the growing global problem of marine debris accumulation and have a major societal impact.”
Fig. 2. Development of the transparent and high-strength starch/cellulose composite sheet. Credit: Osaka University
Fig. 3. Electron micrograph showing the marine biodegradability of the composite sheet. Credit: Osaka University
On the effects of their newly developed technique, Professor Uyama adds, “The effective use of low- cost biomass, which is what is afforded by our technique, will lead to a reduction in greenhouse gas (e.g., CO2) emissions, thereby positioning this technology among the key environmental technologies emerging from Japan for the ratification of the Paris agreement.”
This product is expected to not only contribute significantly to a reduction in the amount of new marine debris deposited globally, but also to a more efficient and sustainable material cycling process and to the reduction of greenhouse gases, giving it the potential to enable the realization of the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals, the COP25, and the policies of the Japanese government-led Moonshot Program (Target 4, resource circulation).
Provided by Osaka University APA citation: Researchers create water-degradable plastic combining starch and cellulose (2020, March
23) retrieved 27 April 2020 from https://phys.org/news/2020-03-water-degradable-plastic-combining- starch-cellulose.html
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QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. 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Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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The Sustainability Research Paper Essay
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