TMGT 361 supply chain SIPOC model Essay
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TMGT 361 supply chain SIPOC model Essay
Assignment VIII Instructions
There to the supply chain. The supply chain can be used to describe every bit of an organization’s processes and outputs. There are entire fields dedicated to parts of the supply chain, e.g., scheduling, production planning, inventory, storage, and many more. Quality, efficiency, and safety are all focused on the supply chain.
One view of the supply chain is the SIPOC model.
- Supply/Suppliers: the provide inputs to the process.
- Inputs: the materials, tools, supplies, parts, services, information etc. used by the process to produce the outputs.
- Process: the activities that transform to inputs into outputs.
- Outputs: the products, services, etc. that result from the process and are intended for the customer.
- Customer/Consumer: the user of the outputs produced by the process.
The above seems pretty simple but each bullet has a lot of subparts and each bullet has many implications or tie-ins to LSS (and safety, sales, marketing, accounting, and most other functions). Consider the following and try to relate them to all you have done in this course.
- Supply/Suppliers: How do you select and audit suppliers?
- Inputs: How do you control the quality of the inputs—rely on suppliers quality processes, inspect all incoming materials?
- Process: What are the specs (plans, diagrams, etc.) and process plans, the process flow, and work instructions? What are the quality characteristics; are they built into the process, e.g., QFD and reliability? What are the most important characteristics? What are the quality costs? Should you be using SPC? Does the process add value; is it Lean?
- Outputs: Should you be performing statistical inspection? What sort of testing and quality assurance do you need? Is your gage and measurement system OK?
- Customer/Consumer: How do you handle external failures, e.g., repairs and returns? How do you relate to customers?
LSS and other quality personnel deal with every one of the above. Quality managers tend to deal with all the above. Quality engineers, reliability engineers, and Black Belts tend to deal with the IPO part. Quality technicians, e.g., process analysts and calibration technicians deal heavily with P and O. Training and/or team work may be needed for of the part of the SIPOC. You should be able to see the parts of the SIPOC would require designers, salespersons, accountants, safety officers, marketers, and other personnel.
e/Important things to know and/or consider about the SIPOC model include the following.
- There is a supply chain.
- You can string the chain out to a ridiculous length. For example, assume I am selling hamburgers at my restaurant. How far back do I go on the supply of hamburger? Just to the company I buy the hamburgers from? Back to where that company got the hamburger? Back to the farmer who raised the cow? You can also not go back far enough. Sometimes you need a chain of custody (so to speak) fairly far back or up stream. When you buy something, isn’t it sometimes prudent to know the origin or provenance of what you are buying? When you sell something, isn’t it sometimes prudent to know to what use your customer is going to put your product? Yes, in all cases. There is no right or wrong answer here. You go back or forward in the chain as far as necessary. Necessary for what? That depends on the goal and situation. This is one reason that thinking and planning are needed.
- Every supplier is likely a customer of someone else. Every supplier is someone else’s customer. The most important customer (even for drilling one hole in a particular engine block) is the end consumer.
I often admonish that the numbers (the results) are not the answer and that numbers can be correct but useless (GIGO). Recall a previous lecture about the test, the measurement, and the evaluation.
- Test: the tool/instrument and procedures to use the tool. For example, a thermometer or a control chart plan.
- Measurement: the result of using the instrument. For example, the temperature is -300 F or the control chart shows a non-random trend.
- Evaluation: the value judgements, conclusions, interpretations, and decisions based on the measurements. For example, my temperature is good because I am supposed to be cryo-freeze or I should replace the carbide insert on the lathe.
Rules of thumb are a great advantage. Very specific work instructions, organizations charts, job descriptions, and other plans and documents are very good and are not usually used enough. Voluntary and involuntary (including laws, and legal regs) are very good and can be used to improve management, efficiency, quality, safety, profit; they can also help you be ethical and have a good work environment. But if decision-making was not required, then a robot could do it all.
Following is one model for decision making or behavior. Like all analogies, it is imperfect but it is useful in considering what and why we do things.
Rule can mean law, directive, a contact requirement, code, rule of thumb, typical best practice, or the like. Judgment is basically just that. Judgment might be based on wisdom, experience, your gut, etc. The above model can be used for many things. Let’s assume it is used to determine what is necessary concerning some (or any) aspect of customer-supplier relations.
It would probably be incomplete thinking or imprudent to do any of the following.
- Only focus on the blue (the rule) that doesn’t overlap with judgment. This is pretty dumb but some persons do this so I included it (I think I have had some bosses like this). It is an eschewing of judgment to the point of ignoring some rules. It is an adherence to only rules that seem to have no rational judgment behind them.
- Only focusing on the rules, some of which might overlap with judgment but judgment is ignored. Only the rules are considered. A lot of person’s decision making seems to fall into this category. They are not able to exercise judgment or do not trust judgment. This is not the worst thing in the world, especially if the rules are very clear, understood, and cover every possible contingency (all unlikely).
- Only focusing on the yellow (judgment) that does not overlap with the rules. This is someone who can’t stand the rules. When their judgment overlaps with the rules they go against their own best judgment so they don’t coincidentally obey a rule (my three sons were all once teenagers; I am well acquainted with this form of oppositional-defiant behavior).
- Only focusing on your judgment. Maybe some of that judgment also happens to be a rule. But who cares about the rules; my judgment is all that is important, all that I should consider. That view is also pretty dumb. The majority of managers and leaders I have worked with in my life have been in this category. No one has judgment so good that it encompasses all the rules developed by others.
I hope that it is obvious that the best practice is to adhere to the rules and good judgment. What happens when rules and judgement collide? That depends on the situation; maybe your rank and seniority.
I ran out of steam and have nothing more to say. Sometimes a man who has nothing to say has said all he knows!
See the general assignment instructions for information about the quality and quantity expectations and evaluation criteria.
VIII. Customers and suppliers. Pick a real process. The process could be as simple as drilling a hole or as complex as an organization (which is really just a very big process). Describe the process (organization, whatever), e.g., its size, purpose, location, and other pertinent characteristics). Describe the SIPOC model as follows. You could write a book about the following; remember the approximately 5-page length.
- Supply: include how suppliers are selected and managed, and how quality of suppliers is ensured.
- Input: what are the various resources, supplies, and other inputs. How are they obtained, stored, and managed (and other pertinent factors)?
- Process: what processes, activities, and procedures are performed (how do the inputs get transformed into the outputs)? How are the processes managed (e.g., are they standardized, formally stated, etc. and other pertinent factors)?
- Output: what are the products, services, or other deliverables? How is their quality controlled, how are they managed, delivered to customers, and other pertinent factors?
- Customer: Who are the customers; what are their characteristics? How are they managed and communicated with?
Pick a process or organization with which you are personally familiar. Do not research internet data or use a case study from a book.
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QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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