Transgenic Animals Are Manmade
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Topic 8 Reading Exercises from:
Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition. Routledge.
For each of the following enthymematic arguments:
a. Formulate the plausible premise or conclusion, if any, that is missing but understood.
b. Write the argument in standard form, including the missing premise or conclusion needed to make the completed argument validif possibleusing parameters if necessary.
c. Name the order of the enthymeme.
d. If the argument is not valid even with the understood premise included, name the fallacy that it commits.
Transgenic animals are manmade and as such are patentable.
Alan E. Smith, cited in Genetic Engineering
(San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1990)
a. The premise understood but not stated here is that whatever is manmade is patentable.
b. Standard-form translation:
All manmade things are patentable things.
All transgenic animals are manmade things.
Therefore, all transgenic animals are patentable things.
c. The enthymeme is first-order, because the premise taken as understood is the major premise of the completed argument.
d. This is a valid syllogism of the form AAA1, Barbara.
*15. Man tends to increase at a greater rate than his means of subsistence; consequently he is occasionally subject to a severe struggle for existence. Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 1871
16. No internal combustion engines are free from pollution; but no internal combustion engine is completely efficient. You may draw your own conclusion.
17. A nation without a conscience is a nation without a soul. A nation without a soul is a nation that cannot live. Winston Churchill
18. Liberty means responsibility. That is why most men dread it. George Bernard Shaw, Maxims for Revolutionists, 1903
19. Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past. George Orwell, 1984
20. Productivity is desirable because it betters the condition of the vast majority of the people.
Stephen Miller, Adam Smith and the Commercial Republic,
The Public Interest, Fall 1980
21. Advertisements perform a vital function in almost any society, for they help to bring buyers and sellers together.
Burton M. Leiser, Liberty, Justice, and Morals, 1986
22. Logic is a matter of profound human importance precisely because it is empirically founded and experimentally applied.
John Dewey, Reconstruction in Philosophy, 1920
23. Iphigeneia at Aulis is a tragedy because it demonstrates inexorably how human character, with its itch to be admired, combines with the malice of heaven to produce wars which no one in his right mind would want and which turn out to be utterly disastrous for everybody.
George E. Dimock, Jr., Introduction to Iphigeneia at Aulis by Euripides, 1992
24. the law does not expressly permit suicide, and what it does not expressly permit it forbids.
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics
25. The man who says that all things come to pass by necessity cannot criticize one who denies that all things come to pass by necessity: for he admits that this too happens of necessity.
Epicurus, Fragment XL, Vatican Collection
Identify the form of each of the following arguments and state whether the argument is valid or invalid:
If a man could not have done otherwise than he in fact did, then he is not responsible for his action. But if determinism is true, it is true of every action that the agent could not have done otherwise. Therefore, if determinism is true, no one is ever responsible for what he does.
Winston Nesbit and Stewart Candlish, Determinism and the Ability to Do Otherwise, Mind, July 1978
This is a pure hypothetical syllogism. Valid.
10. I have already said that he must have gone to Kings Pyland or to Capleton. He is not at Kings Pyland, therefore he is at Capleton.
Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of Silver Blaze
11. If then, it is agreed that things are either the result of coincidence or for an end, and that these cannot be the result of coincidence or spontaneity, it follows that they must be for an end.
12. There is no case known (neither is it, indeed, possible) in which a thing is found to be the efficient cause of itself; for in such a case it would be prior to itself, which is impossible.
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, I, question 2, article 3
13. Either wealth is an evil or wealth is a good; but wealth is not an evil; therefore wealth is a good.
Sextus Empiricus, Against the Logicians, second century CE
14. I do know that this pencil exists; but I could not know this, if Humes principles were true; therefore, Humes principles, one or both of them, are false.
G. E. Moore, Some Main Problems of Philosophy (New York: Allen & Unwin, 1953)
15. It is clear that we mean something, and something different in each case, by such words [as substance, cause, change, etc.]. If we did not we could not use them consistently, and it is obvious that on the whole we do consistently apply and withhold such names.
C. D. Broad, Scientific Thought, 1923
Bring together all tools for assessing arguments, discuss (in your own words) what might be offered to refute each of the following:
15. The decision of the Supreme Court in U.S. v. Nixon (1974), handed down the first day of the Judiciary Committees final debate, was critical. If the President defied the order, he would be impeached. If he obeyed the order, it was increasingly apparent, he would be impeached on the evidence.
Victoria Schuck, Watergate, The Key Reporter, Winter 19751976
16. If we are to have peace, we must not encourage the competitive spirit, whereas if we are to make progress, we must encourage the competitive spirit. We must either encourage or not encourage the competitive spirit. Therefore we shall either have no peace or make no progress.
17. The argument under the present head may be put into a very concise form, which appears altogether conclusive. Either the mode in which the federal government is to be constructed will render it sufficiently dependent on the people, or it will not. On the first supposition, it will be restrained by that dependence from forming schemes obnoxious to their constituents. On the other supposition, it will not possess the confidence of the people, and its schemes of usurpation will be easily defeated by the State governments, who will be supported by the people.
James Madison, The Federalist Papers, no. 46, 1788
18. a man cannot enquire either about that which he knows, or about that which he does not know; for if he knows, he has no need to enquire; and if not, he cannot; for he does not know the very subject about which he is to enquire.
19. We tell clients to try to go through the entire first interview without even mentioning money. If you ask for a salary that is too high, the employer concludes that he cant afford you. If you ask for one that is too low, youre essentially saying, Im not competent enough to handle the job that youre offering.
James Challenger, What to Doand Not to DoWhen Job Hunting, U.S. News & World Report, 6 August 1984
20. Pascals wager is justifiably famous in the history of religion and also of betting. Pascal was arguing that agnosticspeople unsure of Gods existenceare best off betting that He does exist. If He does but you end up living as an unbeliever, then you could be condemned to spend eternity in the flames of Hell. If, on the other hand, He doesnt exist but you live as a believer, you suffer no corresponding penalty for being in error. Obviously, then, bettors on God start out with a big edge.
Daniel Seligman, Keeping Up, Fortune, 7 January 1985
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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