William Paleys Design Argument for Gods Existence Essay
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
William Paley’s Design Argument for God’s Existence Essay
Your paper should be 3 – 4 pages double spaced It should have 5 parts.
Part I: Introduction Part II: Thesis Statement Part III: Exposition Part IV: Criticism Part V: Conclusion
Part I: Introduction
State what your paper is going to be about. In this case, it will be about God’s existence. William Paley, in his “Natural Theory”, presents an argument for God’s existence. You will be evaluating that argument.
Part II: Thesis Statement: The thesis statement should be one simple statement. You will either criticize Paley’s argument or you will defend it.
If you are going to criticize it, you should state that. If you are going to defend it, you should that that.
(Important: To criticize his argument is not the same as criticizing his conclusion. You can disagree with the argument without disagreeing with his conclusion. His conclusion is that God exists. His argument is the reasons for thinking his conclusion is true. Keep separate the conclusion that God exists from the argument the reasons for thinking God exists.
If you are going to defend his argument, it is not enough to simply agree with his conclusion. Also, don’t provide your own argument for his conclusion that God exists. Stick with his argument. There are philosophers that have raised objections to his argument. You should state one of those objections. Then, you should defend Paley’s argument against that objection).
Don’t decide from the very beginning whether you will criticize or defend his argument. The first thing is to do the relevant reading. Then, process the argument.
Be sure that you understand the argument. Then, consider the possible objections. Then, decide whether you agree with his argument or not. If you decide his argument is correct and the criticisms are wrong, then, you can decide to defend his argument. If you decide his argument is wrong and the criticisms are correct, then you can decide to criticize his argument.
Part III: Exposition
This is where you present Paley’s argument for God’s existence. For this, you must click on the link and turn to the reading.
His argument is a design argument. That means the argument identifies things in the material world that possess features that indicate they must have been designed. Take, for example, the human eye. It possesses features that indicate it was designed. If it is designed, it has a designer. And, the only thing capable of designing the human eye is God. Therefore, God exists.
To get you started, he is the skeleton of the argument.
We know a watch has a designer or someone or group of people that designed it.
Here is the argument:
Premise 1: A watch is functionally complex Premise 2: Everything functionally complex must have been designed Premise 3: Everything designed has a designer Conclusion: A watch has a designer
If we accept his argument, then, we should accept this next argument.
Premise 1*: Things in the material world, like the human eye, are functionally complex. Premise 2: Everything functionally complex must have been designed Premise 3: Everything designed has a designer Conclusion 1: Things in the material world, like the human eye, have a designer.
Premise 4: The only being capable of designing something like the human eye is God: Conclusion 2: God is the designer of the human eye Conclusion 3: God exists
You need to flesh out this argument. You should explain what it means for something to be functionally complex. Read very carefully. You must get this part exactly right. Premise 1 says a watch is functionally complex. Premise 1* says things in the material world, like the human eye, is functionally complex. What does that mean?
For Paley, a thing having functional complexity is a reliable indicator that that thing is designed. If a watch is functionally complex, that is a good indicator that the watch is designed. If the human eye is functionally complex, that is a good indicator that it is functionally complex. Why does he think that functional complexity is a good indicator of design?
Premise 4 says that only God is capable of designing the human eye. Why should we think this? Why can’t some being less than God be the designer of the human eye? Why does it have to be God? Think through this carefully. Be sure to provide adequate discussion of each premise. That is, tell us what each of them means and why we should think they are true.
Part IV: Criticism or Defense
This is whether you either criticize or defend the argument.
If you are criticizing, you should raise one objection to one of the premises. Let suppose you are going to criticize premise 2—that everything functionally complex is designed.
If there a way for something to be functionally complex without being designed? Is there a mechanism that results in functional complexity but is not guided by design?
The Darwinian process of evolution is a mechanism. Can this mechanism yield functional complexity? It is not guided by design.
To answer this, you must state what the Darwinian process is. How does this process yield functional complexity? Why should we say it is not guided by any kind of design?
According to Richard Dawkins, the Darwinian evolutionary process is more likely to produce functional complexity than the design process.
Why does he think this? If he’s right, then, that puts premise 2 of Paley’s argument is serious doubt. But then, the entire argument is in doubt.
After you raise your objection. You should provide consider a response to your objection.
Look at a. The Argument from Irreducible Biochemical Complexity. The argument here is that for the evolutionary process to account for all functional complexity, e.g., the functional complexity of the human eye, all functional complexity must be cumulatively complex. But, people like Dembski and Behe argue that some functional complexities are “irreducibly complex”.
What does this mean? What does it mean for some complexities to be irreducibly complex? What does it mean for some to be cumulatively complex? Why is it that if some functional complexities are irreducibly complex, some functional complexities simply cannot be accounted for by the Darwinian evolutionary process?
If you are criticizing Paley’s argument, and you think that the Darwinian process of evolution can account for the functional complexity of the human eye, you need to response to the argument from irreducible complexity.
Conclusion: You should state one thing you learned from having completed this paper. What’s the one thing you learned? What’s the one thing the reader should have learned from having read your paper?
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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William Paleys Design Argument for Gods Existence Essay
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